Open Access Articles- Top Results for Stupa


File:Sanchi stupa.jpg
The Great Stupa at Sanchi, India, established by Ashoka (4th–1st century BCE).
"Zedi" redirects here. For people named Zedi, see Zedi (name).

A stupa (from Sanskrit: m., स्तूप, stūpa, Tibetan མཆོད་རྟེན་ chöten, Sinhalese: දාගැබ, Pāli: थुप "thūpa", literally meaning "heap") is a mound-like or hemispherical structure containing Buddhist relics, typically the ashes of Buddhist monks, used by Buddhists as a place of meditation.

Description and history

Stupa surrounded by four lion-crowned pillars. Gandhara, 2nd century CE.

Stupas originated as pre-Buddhist earthen burial mounds, in which ascetics were buried in a seated position,[1] called chaitya.[2] After the parinirvana of the Buddha, his remains were cremated and the ashes divided and buried under eight mounds with two further mounds encasing the urn and the embers. Little is known about these early stupas, particularly since it has not been possible to identify the original ten monuments. However, some later stupas, such as at Sarnath and Sanchi, seem to be embellishments of earlier mounds.

The stupa was elaborated as Buddhism spread to other Asian countries becoming, for example, the chorten of Tibet[3] and the pagoda in East Asia.[4] The pagoda has varied forms that also include bell-shaped and pyramidal styles. In the Western context, there is no clear distinction between the stupa and the pagoda. In general, however, stupa is used for a Buddhist structure of India or south-east Asia, while pagoda refers to a building in East Asia which can be entered and which may be secular in purpose.

Stupas were built in Sri Lanka soon after King Devanampiyatissa converted to Buddhism, the first stupa to be built was the Thuparamaya. Later on Sri Lanka went on to build many stupas over the years, some like the Jetavanarama in Anuradhapura being one of the tallest ancient structures in the world.

Notable stupas

File:Amlukdara stupa half view.JPG
Amlukdara stupa, near Barikot Swat

Swat valley hosts one of the biggest well-preserved stupa at Shingardar near Ghalegay village and another stupa is located near Barikot Amlukdara. A stupa was discovered at Sopara, an ancient port near Mumbai, and is believed to be one of the most ancient stupas in the world. The Dhamek Stupa at Sarnath, India is dated to 500 CE,[5] while the tallest is the Phra Pathom Chedi in Nakhon Pathom, Thailand, at a height of 127 metres.[citation needed] The Great Stupa at Sanchi or the Sanchi Stupa in Madhya Pradesh in Central India is the oldest stone building in India. In Sri Lanka, the ancient city of Anuradhapura includes some of the tallest, most ancient and best preserved stupas in the world, such as Ruwanwelisaya.

The most elaborate stupa is the 8th century Borobudur monument in Java, Indonesia. The upper rounded terrace with rows of bell shaped stupas contained buddha images symbolizing Arupadhatu, the sphere of formlessness. The main stupa itself is empty, symbolizing complete perfection of enlightenment. The main stupa is only the crown part of the monument, while the base is pyramidal structure elaborate with galleries adorned with bas relief of scenes derived from Buddhist text depicted the life of Siddharta Gautama. Borobudur unique and significant architecture has been acknowledge by UNESCO as the largest buddhist monument in the world.[citation needed]

Types of stupas

Built for a variety of reasons, Buddhist stupas are classified based on form and function into five types:[6]

  • Relic stupa, in which the relics or remains of the Buddha, his disciples and lay saints are interred.
  • Object stupa, in which the items interred are objects belonged to the Buddha or his disciples such as a begging bowl or robe, or important Buddhist scriptures.
  • Commemorative stupa, built to commemorate events in the lives of Buddha or his disciples.
  • Symbolic stupa, to symbolise aspects of Buddhist theology, for example, Borobuddur is considered to be the symbol of "the Three Worlds (dhatu) and the spiritual stages (bhumi) in a Mahayana bodhisattva's character."[6]
  • Votive stupa, constructed to commemorate visits or to gain spiritual benefits, usually at the site of prominent stupas which are regularly visited.


The sharing of the relics of the Buddha, Zenyōmitsu-Temple Museum, Tokyo
File:Buddha relics.JPG
Buddha relics from Kanishka's stupa in Peshawar, Pakistan. These surviving relics are now housed in Mandalay, Burma.

"The shape of the stupa represents the Buddha, crowned and sitting in meditation posture on a lion throne. His crown is the top of the spire; his head is the square at the spire's base; his body is the vase shape; his legs are the four steps of the lower terrace; and the base is his throne."[7]

Five purified elements

Although not described in any Tibetan text on stupa symbolism, the stupa may represent the five purified elements:[8]

  • The square base represents earth
  • The hemispherical dome/vase represents water
  • The conical spire represents fire
  • The upper lotus parasol and the crescent moon represents air
  • The sun and the dissolving point represents the element of space


To build a stupa, transmissions and ceremonies from a Buddhist teacher is necessary.[9] Which kind of Stupa to be constructed in a certain area is decided together with the teacher assisting in the construction. Sometimes the type of stupa chosen is directly connected with events that have taken place in the area.[9]


All stupas contain a treasury filled with various objects. Small offerings called Tsa-Tsas fill a major part of the treasury. Creation of various types of Tsa-Tsas is a ceremony itself. Mantras written on paper are rolled into thin rolls, and put into these small clay stupas.[9] Filling the treasury, one layer of Tsa-Tsas are placed, and the empty space between is filled with dry sand. On the new surface appearing, another layer is made, until the entire space of a treasury is full.[9]

The number of Tsa-Tsas are dependent on the size of both the treasury and Tsa-Tsa, since it should be completely filled. For example, the Kalachakra stupa in southern Spain has approximately 14 000 Tsa-Tsas within.[9]

Jewellery and other "precious" objects are also placed in the treasury. It is not necessary that the jewellery be expensive, since it is the symbolic value that is important, not the market price.[9] It is believed that the more objects placed into the stupa, the stronger the energy of the Stupa will be.[9]

Tree of Life

A very important element in every Stupa is the Tree of Life. It is a wooden pole covered with gems and thousands of mantras, and placed in the central channel of the stupa.[9] It is placed here during a ceremony or initiation, where the participants hold colorful ribbons connected to the Tree of Life. Together the participants make their most positive and powerful wishes, which are stored in the Tree of Life. In this way the stupa is charged up, and will start to function.[9]


Building a stupa is considered extremely beneficial, leaving very positive karmic imprints in the mind. Future benefits from this action will result in fortunate rebirths. Fortunate worldly benefits will be the result, such as being born into a rich family, having a beautiful body, a nice voice, and being attractive and bringing joy to others and having a long and happy life, in which one's wishes are fulfilled quickly.[10] On the absolute level, one will also be able to reach enlightenment, the goal of Buddhism, quickly.[10]

Destroying a stupa on the other hand, is considered an extremely negative deed, similar to killing.[11] Such an action is explained to create massive negative karmic imprints, leading to massive future problems. It is said this action will leave the mind in a state of paranoia after death has occurred, leading to totally unfortunate rebirths.[11]

Tibetan stupas

File:Eight great stupas.svg
The Eight Great Stupas

There are eight different kinds of stupas in Tibetan Buddhism, each referring to major events in the Buddha's life.[8]

Lotus Blossom Stupa

Also known as Stupa of Heaped Lotuses or Birth of the Sugata Stupa, this stupa refers to the birth of the Buddha. "At birth Buddha took seven steps in each of the four directions"[8] (East, South, West and North). In each direction lotuses sprang, symbolizing the Four Immeasurables: love, compassion, joy and equanimity. The four steps of the basis of this stupa is circular, and it is decorated with lotus-petal designs. Occasionally, seven heaped lotus steps are constructed. These refer to the seven first steps of the Buddha.[8]

Enlightenment Stupa

Also known as the Stupa of the Conquest of Mara. This stupa symbolizes the 35-year-old Buddha's attainment of enlightenment under the bodhi tree in Bodh Gaya, where he conquered worldly temptations and attacks manifesting in the form of Mara.[8]

Stupa of Many Doors

Also known as the Stupa of Many Gates. After reaching enlightenment, the Buddha taught his first students in a deer-park near Sarnath. The series of doors on each side of the steps represent the first teachings: the Four Noble Truths, the Six Perfections, the Noble Eightfold Path and the Twelve Links in the Chain of Dependent Origination.[8]

Stupa of Descent from the God Realm

At 42 years of age, Buddha spent a summer retreat in Tushita Heaven, where his mother had taken rebirth. In order to repay her kindness he taught the dharma to her reincarnation. Local inhabitants built a stupa like this in Sankasya in order to commemorate this event. This stupa is characterized by having a central projection at each side containing a triple ladder or steps.[8]

Stupa of Great Miracles

Also known as Stupa of Conquest of the Tirthikas. This stupa refers to various miracles performed by the Buddha when he was 50 years old. Legend claims that he overpowered maras and heretics by engaging them in intellectual arguments and also by performing miracles. This stupa was raised by the Lichavi kingdom to commemorate the event.[8]

Stupa of Reconciliation

This stupa commemorates the Buddha's resolution of a dispute among the sangha. A stupa in this design was built in the kingdom of Magadha, where the reconciliation occurred. It has four octagonal steps with equal sides.[8]

Stupa of Complete Victory

This stupa commemorates Buddha's successful prolonging of his life by three months. It has only three steps, which are circular and unadorned.[8]

Stupa of Nirvana

This stupa refers to the death of the Buddha, when he was 80 years old. It symbolizes the Buddha's complete absorption into the highest state of mind. It is bell-shaped and usually not ornamented.[8]

Kalachakra stupa

Main article: Kalachakra stupa

A 9th kind of stupa exists; the Kalachakra stupa. Its symbolism is not connected to events in the Buddha's life, but instead to the symbolism of the Kalachakra Tantra, created to protect against negative energies.[12]

Regional names

Regional names for stupa include (in alphabetical order):

  • Candi (Indonesia and Malaysia, pronounced 'chandi').[6]
  • Chaitya (Nepal)[6]
  • Chedey (Cambodia)[6]
  • Chedi (Thai: เจดีย์, from the Pāli cetiya (चेतिय)[6]
  • Chedi (Tamil)
  • Chorten Tibet, Ladakh (India) and Bhutan མཆོད་རྟེན༏ (Wylie: mchod rten), "basis of offering")[6]
  • Субурган (Russia)
  • Dāgaba (usually spelled "Dagoba") (Sinhalese: දාගැබ, from Sanskrit dhātu-garbha. (दातु-गर्भ) "relic-chamber" )[6]
  • Garbha (Sanskrit: गर्भ, meaning a storehouse or repository in this context)
  • Havitta (Dhivehi: ހަވިއްތަ) or ustubu (Maldives)
  • Pagoda South East Asia[6]
  • Phrathāt (Lanna)
  • Setaow (စေတဳ, /cetɔe/)
  • Sotoba (Japan [卒塔婆/そとば], (Japan [塔/とう], from Chinese)
  • Stupa (Hindi: स्तूप, from Sanskrit)
  • Suburgan/Suvarga (Mongolia)
  • Ta (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Jyutping: taap3), ancient transliteration of Sanskrit stupa.
  • Tap (Korea [塔/탑], from Chinese)
  • Tháp (Vietnam [, from Chinese])
  • Thart (Laos)
  • Thoopam (Tamil)
  • Sthoopamu (Telugu)
  • Tseti (ၸေႇတီႇ) or Puhto (ပူႉထူဝ်း)
  • Zedi (Myanmar [Zedi စေတီ) /Pahto (ပုထိုး])

Swat District

Swat District is a small place with large number of ancient Stupas.


See also

References in popular culture


  1. ^ "Buddhist Art and Architecture: Symbolism of the Stupa / Chorten". 2006-08-14. Retrieved 2013-01-07. 
  2. ^ "THE BUDDHIST STUPA: ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT". 2005-01-13. Retrieved 2013-01-07. 
  3. ^ "Stupa - Bhutanese, Nepalese, Tibetan Style Chortens or Stupa is the symbol of enlightened mind". Bhutan Majestic Travel. 2013-01-17. Retrieved 2013-01-17. 
  4. ^ The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Columbia University Press
  5. ^ Sir Banister Fletcher's a History of Architecture, 20th ed. (ed. by Dan Cruickshank). Architectural Press, 1996. ISBN 0-7506-2267-9. Page 646.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i Le Huu Phuoc (March 2010). Buddhist Architecture. Grafikol. p. 140. ISBN 978-0-9844043-0-8. Retrieved 8 December 2011. 
  7. ^ "Introduction to stupas". Retrieved 2009-04-18. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Beer, Robert: The Encyclopedia of Tibetan Symbols and Motifs (2004) Serindia Publications Inc. ISBN 1-932476-10-5
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Miracle Stupa - Stupa". Retrieved 2009-04-18. 
  10. ^ a b "Benefits Resulting from the Building of Stupas". Retrieved 2009-04-18. 
  11. ^ a b Article: Lopon Tsechu Rinpoche: The Four Thoughts which Turn the Mind from Samsara. BUDDHISM TODAY, Vol.5, 1998. Available online
  12. ^ "Kalachakra Stupa". Retrieved 2009-04-18. [dead link]

Further reading

External links