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One influential early writer on Sufi philosophy was Al-Ghazali
(1058–1111). He discussed the concept of the self
and the causes of its misery and happiness.
Major ideas in Sufi metaphysics have surrounded the concept of
Wahdat or "Unity with God". Two main Sufi philosophies prevail on
this controversial topic. Wahdat-ul-Wujood (Unity of Being)
essentially states that the only truth within the universe is
God, and that all things exist within God only. Wahdat-ul-Shuhud
(Apparentism, or Unity of Witness), on the other hand, holds that any
experience of unity between God and the created world is only in the
mind of the believer and that God and his creation are entirely
separate.It is the state where there is no difference between God and
human being who is trying to achieve a particular state i.e. 'No One
Main article: Sufi cosmology
Sufi cosmology has three main schools that are often somewhat
incongruously combined, the Ishraqi visionary universe as expounded
by Suhrawardi Maqtul, the Neoplatonic view, and the
Main article: Lataif-e-sitta
Drawing from Qur'anic verses, virtually all Sufis distinguish
Lataif-as-Sitta ("the six subtleties") as: Nafs, Qalb, Sirr, Ruh, Khafi,
and Akhfa. These lataif (singular: latifa) designate various
psychospiritual "organs" or, sometimes, faculties of sensory and
suprasensory perception. They are thought to be parts of the self in a
similar manner to the way glands and organs are part of the body.
The Sufi, mostly, believe in a strong spirit. You can make your spirit
strong through the practice you get through the teaching of a Spiritual
Teacher [Shaykh]. If you make your spirit strong according to the
teaching of Islam, then you can get on the way which leads to Allah.
Death does not mean 'The End' it is turn to enter in new life which is
entirely different from the life which he has spent. Death is only
temporary separation of Ruh from Body. Which was mixed by God to provide life.
Nasma is the Sufi term for the subtle or Astral Body. It is not to
be confused with the Ruh (spirit) which transcends both nasma and
Sufism demarcates the physical body from the Nasma.
A haal is a state of consciousness, generally a product of spiritual
practices, recognised in Sufism. Each haal (state) is associated
with a maqaam (station) of along the spiritual path.
A Manzil in Sufism is a plane of consciousness. There are seven Manzils
along the path to God. The Manzils are also parts of the Qur'an
which help in protecting one from sorcery.
A maqaam is one's spiritual station or developmental level, as
distinct from one's haal, or state of consciousness. This is seen as the outcome of one's effort to transform oneself, whereas the haal is a
Concepts in Gnosis
Main article: Fanaa (Sufism)
Fanaa is the Sufi term for extinction. It means to
annihilate the self, while remaining physically alive. Persons having
entered this state are said to have no existence outside of, and be in
complete unity with, Allah. Fanaa is equivalent to the concept of
nirvana in Buddhism, Sikhism and
Hinduism or moksha in Hinduism which also aim for
annihilation of the self or mukhti in Sikhism.
The nature of fanaa consists of the elimination of evil deeds and lowly
attributes of the flesh. In other words, fanaa is abstention from sin
and the expulsion from the heart of all love other than the Divine Love;
expulsion of greed, lust, desire, vanity, show, etc. In the state of
fanaa the reality of the true and only relationship asserts itself in
the mind. One realizes and feeds that the only real relationship is with
fanaa means to destroy your self. if you destroy your self in the love
of Allah then that fanaa will convert into entire life means abdi
zindgi. and for that one you have to destroy your will and yourself on
the will of Allah.
A person's Baqaa, which literally means permanency, is a term in
Sufi philosophy which describes a particular state of life with God.
Inayat Khan writes in his book A Sufi message of spiritual
- "The ideal perfection, called Baqa by Sufis, is termed 'Najat' in Islam, 'Nirvana' in Buddhism, 'Salvation' in Christianity, and 'Mukhti' in Hinduism. This is the highest condition attainable, and all ancient prophets and sages experienced it, and taught it to the world. Baqa is the original state of God. At this state every being must arrive some day, consciously or unconsciously, before or after death. The beginning and end of all beings is the same, difference only existing during the journey."
- "Perfection is reached by the regular practice of concentration, passing through three grades of development: Faná -fi-Shaikh, annihilation in the astral plane, Faná-fi-Rasul, annihilation in the spiritual plane, and Faná-fi-Allah, annihilation in the abstract. After passing through these three grades, the highest state is attained of Bá qi-bi-Allah, annihilation in the eternal consciousness, which is the destination of all who travel by this path."
The two ideas are enjoined in the concept fana’ wa baqa’ (annihilation
of the self and abiding in God).
Yaqeen is generally translated as "certainty", and is considered the
summit of the many maqaams (stations) by which the path of
walaya (sometimes translated as Sainthood) is fully completed.
Haqiqa or Haqiqat is the Sufi term for the supreme Truth or absolute Reality.
Marifa (or alternatively 'marifah') literally means knowledge. The
term is used by Sufi Muslims to describe mystical
intuitive knowledge, knowledge of spiritual truth as reached through
ecstatic experiences rather than revealed or rationally acquired.
Ihsan is an Arabic term meaning "perfection" or "excellence." Ihsan
is the goal or aim of Sufi practices.
- ^ Encyclopædia Britannica
Books. pp. 54–88. ISBN 0-8356-0778-X. An imprint of the
Theosophical Publishing House.
- Shah, Idries (2001). The Sufis. London, UK: Octagon Press.
pp. 394–395. ISBN 0-86304-020-9.
Intimate Exteriority: Sufi Space as Sanctuary for Injured Subjectivities in Turkey., Journal of Religion and Health, Vol. 46, No. 3, September
2007; pp. 409–422
- Haque, Amber (2004), "Psychology from Islamic Perspective: Contributions of Early
Muslim Scholars and Challenges to Contemporary Muslim Psychologists", Journal of Religion and Health 43 (4): 357–377, doi:10.1007/s10943-004-4302-z
- Annemarie Schimmel, Mystical dimensions of Islam (1975),