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Sufism

"Sufi" redirects here. For other uses, see Sufi (disambiguation).
Not to be confused with sophism.

Sufism or Tasawwuf (Arabic: تصوف‎) is defined as the inner mystical dimension of Islam. Practitioners of Sufism (Tasawuf), referred to as Sufis (ṣūfī) (/ˈsfi/; صُوفِيّ), often belong to different ṭuruq or "orders"—congregations formed around a grand master referred to as a Mawla who maintains a direct chain of teachers back to the Prophet Muhammad.[1] These orders meet for spiritual sessions (majalis) in meeting places known as zawiyahs, khanqahs, or tekke.[2] Sufis strive for ihsan (perfection of worship) as detailed in a hadith: "Ihsan is to worship Allah as if you see Him; if you can't see Him, surely He sees you."[3] Jalaluddin Rumi stated: "The Sufi is hanging on to Muhammad, like Abu Bakr."[4] Sufis consider themselves to be the original true proponents of this pure original form of Islam.

Sufi orders (turuq) trace many of their original precepts from the Islamic prophet Muhammad either through his cousin and son-in-law Ali ibn Abi Talib or through his (companion) and friend Abu Bakr.[5] Sufi orders are largely Sunni and follow one of the four schools of Sunni Islam and maintain a Sunni Aqidah or creed.[6] Over the years various Sufi orders have been influenced by and adopted into various Shi'ite movements including Ismailism- which led to the Safaviyya order's conversion to Shi'ite Islam and the spread of Twelver Shi'ism throughout Persia.[7] Some Sufi orders include Alevi, Bektashi, Burhaniya, Mevlevi, Ba 'Alawiyya, Chishti, Rifa'i, Khalwati, Naqshbandi, Nimatullahi, Oveyssi, Qadiria Boutshishia, Qadiriyyah, Qalandariyya, Sarwari Qadiri, Shadhiliyya and Suhrawardiyya.[8]

Classical Sufi scholars have defined Sufism as "a science whose objective is the reparation of the heart and turning it away from all else but God".[9] Alternatively, in the words of the Darqawi Sufi teacher Ahmad ibn Ajiba, "a science through which one can know how to travel into the presence of the Divine, purify one's inner self from filth, and beautify it with a variety of praiseworthy traits".[10] Traditional Sufis, such as Bayazid Bastami, Jalaluddin Rumi, Haji Bektash Veli, Junaid Baghdadi, and Al-Ghazali, define Sufism as purely based upon the tenets of Islam and the teachings of Muhammad.[11][12][13][14] Some Orientalists, however, have proposed a variety of diverse theories pertaining to the nature of Sufism, such as Sufism being influenced by Neoplatonism or as an Aryan reaction against Semites.[14] Seyyed Hossein Nasr, states that the preceding theories are false according to the point of view of Sufism.[14] According to William Chittick, "In a broad sense, Sufism can be described as the interiorization and intensification of Islamic faith and practice."[15]

Muslims and mainstream scholars of Islam define Sufism as simply the name for the inner or esoteric dimension of Islam[16] which is supported and complemented by outward or exoteric practices of Islam, such as Islamic law.[17] In this view, "it is absolutely necessary to be a Muslim" to be a true Sufi, because Sufism's "methods are inoperative without" Muslim "affiliation".[18] Orthodox views also maintain that Sufism is unique to Islam.[13][19] In contrast, author Idries Shah states Sufi philosophy is universal in nature, its roots predating the rise of Islam and Christianity.[20] Some schools of Sufism in Western countries allow non-Muslims to receive "instructions on following the Sufi path".[21] Some Muslim opponents of Sufism also consider it outside the sphere of Islam.[16][22]

Classical Sufis were characterised by their attachment to dhikr, (a practice of repeating the names of God, often performed after prayers)[23] and asceticism. Sufism gained adherents among a number of Muslims as a reaction against the worldliness of the early Umayyad Caliphate (661–750 CE).[24] Sufis have spanned several continents and cultures over a millennium, originally expressing their beliefs in Arabic, before spreading into Persian, Turkish, and Urdu among dozens of other languages.[25]

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Eastern and Central Asia

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See also

References

  1. Editors, The (2014-02-04). "tariqa | Islam". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2015-05-29. 
  2. The New Encyclopedia Of Islam By Cyril Glassé, p.499
  3. Shaikh Muhmmad bin Jamil Zeno (1996), The Pillars of Islam & Iman, DARUSSALAM, ISBN 9789960897127 
  4. Quoted in Ibrahim Gamard, Rumi and Islam: Selections from His Stories, Poems, and Discourses — Annotated and Explained, p. 171.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Kabbani, Muhammad Hisham (2004). Classical Islam and the Naqshbandi Sufi Tradition. Islamic Supreme Council of America. p. 557. ISBN 1-930409-23-0. 
  6. Schimmel, Annemarie (2014-11-25). "Sufism | Islam". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2015-05-29. 
  7. Daftary |Farhad |2013 |A History of Shi'i Islam |New York NY |I.B. Tauris and Co ltd. |page 28 |isbn 9780300035315 |4/8/2015
  8. 8.0 8.1 The Jamaat Tableegh and the Deobandis by Sajid Abdul Kayum, Chapter 1: Overview and Background.
  9. Ahmed Zarruq, Zaineb Istrabadi, Hamza Yusuf Hanson. The Principles of Sufism. Amal Press. 2008.
  10. An English translation of Ahmad ibn Ajiba's biography has been published by Fons Vitae.
  11. Corrections of Popular Versions of Poems From Rumi's Divan 
  12. Ibrahim Gamard, Rumi and Self-Discovery 
  13. 13.0 13.1 Chittick, William C (2008). Sufism: A Beginner's Guide. ISBN 9781780740522. Retrieved 17 January 2015. 
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 Nasr, Seyyed Hossein Nasr (1993-01-01). An Introduction to Islamic Cosmological Doctrines. ISBN 9780791415153. Retrieved 17 January 2015. 
  15. Chittick (2008), p.22
  16. 16.0 16.1 Alan Godlas, University of Georgia, Sufism's Many Paths, 2000, University of Georgia
  17. Insights into Islamic Esoterism and Taoism (Sophia Perennis 2003)
  18. The New Encyclopedia Of Islam By Cyril Glassé, p.500
  19. World Sufi Mission 
  20. Munn, Richard C. (January–March 1969). "Reviewed work(s): The Sufis by Idries Shah". Journal of the American Oriental Society (American Oriental Society) 89 (1): 279–281. JSTOR 598339. 
  21. "Sufism, Sufis, and Sufi Orders: Sufism's Many Paths". Uga.edu. Retrieved 2012-08-13. 
  22. Idries Shah, The Sufis, ISBN 0-385-07966-4
  23. A Prayer for Spiritual Elevation and Protection (2007) by Muhyiddin Ibn 'Arabi, Suha Taji-Farouki
  24. 24.0 24.1 Hawting, Gerald R. (2000). The first dynasty of Islam: The Umayyad Caliphate AD 661-750. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-24073-5.  See Google book search.
  25. Michael Sells, Early Islamic Mysticism, pg. 1
  26. 26.0 26.1 26.2 Qamar-ul Huda (2003), Striving for Divine Union: Spiritual Exercises for Suhraward Sufis, RoutledgeCurzon, pp. 1–4 
  27. Chittick (2008), p.3,4,11
  28. 28.0 28.1 Chittick (2008), p.6
  29. The Naqshbandi Sufi Tradition Guidebook of Daily Practices and Devotions, p. 83, Muhammad Hisham Kabbani, Shaykh Muhammad Hisham Kabbani, 2004
  30. "Sufism in Islam". Mac.abc.se. Retrieved 2012-08-13. [dead link]
  31. The Bloomsbury Companion to Islamic Studies by Clinton Bennett, p 328
  32. "Origin of sufism - Qadiri". Sufi Way. 2003. Retrieved 2012-08-13. 
  33. 33.0 33.1 Rashid Ahmad Jullundhry, Qur'anic Exegesis in Classical Literature, pg. 56. New Westminster: The Other Press, 2010. ISBN 9789675062551
  34. Trimingham (1998), p. 1
  35. Sufism, Sufis, and Sufi Orders: Sufism's Many Paths
  36. Abdullah Nur ad-Din Durkee, The School of the Shadhdhuliyyah, Volume One: Orisons, ISBN 977-00-1830-9
  37. Muhammad Emin Er, Laws of the Heart: A Practical Introduction to the Sufi Path, Shifâ Publishers, 2008, ISBN 978-0-9815196-1-6
  38. Abdullah Nur ad-Din Durkee, The School of the Shadhdhuliyyah, Volume One: Orisons; see also Shaykh Muhammad Hisham Kabbani, Classical Islam and the Naqshbandi Sufi Tradition, ISBN 978-1-930409-23-1, which reproduces the spiritual lineage (silsila) of a living Sufi master.
  39. 39.0 39.1 An Introduction to Shiʻi Islam: The History and Doctrines of Shi'i Page 209
  40. See Muhammad Emin Er, Laws of the Heart: A Practical Introduction to the Sufi Path, Shifâ Publishers, 2008, ISBN 978-0-9815196-1-6, for a detailed description of the practices and preconditions of this sort of spiritual retreat.
  41. See examples provided by Muzaffar Ozak in Irshad: Wisdom of a Sufi Master, addressed to a general audience rather than specifically to his own students.
  42. Shaykh Muhammad Hisham Kabbani, Classical Islam and the Naqshbandi Sufi Tradition, ISBN 978-1-930409-23-1
  43. 43.0 43.1 Carl W. Ernst, The Cambridge Companion to Muhammad, Muḥammad as the Pole of Existence, Cambridge University Press, p. 130 
  44. Gholamreza Aavani, Glorification of the Prophet Muhammad in the Poems of Sa'adi, p. 4 
  45. Jalaluddin Rumi, Ibrahim Gamard (translator), Rumi and Islam, p. 169 
  46. Ibn Arabi, The Seals of Wisdom (Fusus al-Hikam), Aisha Bewley 
  47. Fariduddin Attar, Ilahi-nama - The Book of God, John Andrew Boyle (translator), Thou knowest that none of the poets have sung such praise save only I. 
  48. Fariduddin Attar, Ilahi-nama - The Book of God, John Andrew Boyle (translator) 
  49. The Signs of a Sincere Lover (PDF), p. 91 
  50. 50.0 50.1 Suzanne Pinckney Stetkevych, The Mantle Odes: Arabic Praise Poems to the Prophet Muhammad, Indiana University Press 
  51. 51.0 51.1 "Khalifa Ali bin Abu Talib - Ali, The Father of Sufism - Alim.org". Retrieved 27 September 2014. 
  52. IslamOnline.net[dead link]
  53. Massignon, Louis. Essai sur les origines du lexique technique de la mystique musulmane. Paris: Vrin, 1954. p. 104.
  54. Imam Birgivi, The Path of Muhammad, WorldWisdom, ISBN 0-941532-68-2
  55. Hodgson, Marshall G.S. (1958). The Venture of Islam, Vol 1: The Classical Age of Islam. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press. p. 394. 
  56. Chittick, William C (2007-10-01). Sufism. ISBN 9781780740522. Retrieved 27 September 2014. 
  57. Nasr, Seyyed Hossein (1993-01-01). An Introduction to Islamic Cosmological Doctrines. ISBN 9780791415153. Retrieved 27 September 2014. 
  58. Lloyd Ridgeon, Morals and Mysticism in Persian Sufism: A History of Sufi-Futuwwat in Iran, p. 32. Abingdon-on-Thames: Routledge, 2010.
  59. Ibn Khallikan's Biographical Dictionary, translated by William McGuckin de Slane. Paris: Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. Sold by Institut de France and Royal Library of Belgium. Vol. 3, p. 209.
  60. Ahmet T. Karamustafa, Sufism: The Formative Period, pg. 58. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007.
  61. J. Spencer Trimingham, The Sufi Orders in Islam, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-512058-5.
  62. The most recent version of the Risâla is the translation of Alexander Knysh, Al-Qushayri's Epistle on Sufism: Al-risala Al-qushayriyya Fi 'ilm Al-tasawwuf (ISBN 978-1859641866). Earlier translations include a partial version by Rabia Terri Harris (Sufi Book of Spiritual Ascent) and complete versions by Harris, and Barbara R. Von Schlegell.
  63. "> Home". Fons Vitae. Retrieved 2015-05-29. 
  64. For the pre-modern era, see Vincent J. Cornell, Realm of the Saint: Power and Authority in Moroccan Sufism, ISBN 978-0-292-71209-6; and for the colonial era, Knut Vikyr, Sufi and Scholar on the Desert Edge: Muhammad B. Oali Al-Sanusi and His Brotherhood, ISBN 978-0-8101-1226-1.
  65. Leonard Lewisohn, The Legacy of Medieval Persian Sufism, Khaniqahi-Nimatullahi Publications, 1992.
  66. Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Islam: Religion, History, and Civilization, HarperSanFrancisco, 2003. (Ch. 1)
  67. Dina Le Gall, A Culture of Sufism: Naqshbandis in the Ottoman World, 1450–1700, ISBN 978-0-7914-6245-4.
  68. Arthur F. Buehler, Sufi Heirs of the Prophet: The Indian Naqshbandiyya and the Rise of the Mediating Sufi Shaykh, ISBN 978-1-57003-783-2.
  69. Victor Danner, The Islamic Tradition: An introduction. Amity House. February 1988.
  70. Masatoshi Kisaichi, "The Burhami order and Islamic resurgence in modern Egypt." Popular Movements and Democratization in the Islamic World, pg. 57. Part of the New Horizons in Islamic Studies series. Ed. Masatoshi Kisaichi. London: Routledge, 2006. ISBN 9781134150618
  71. "Sufism and Religious Brotherhoods in Senegal", Babou, Cheikh Anta, The International Journal of African Historical Studies, v. 40 no. 1 (2007) pp. 184–6
  72. Sufism and Religious Brotherhoods in Senegal, Khadim Mbacke, translated from the French by Eric Ross and edited by John Hunwick. Princeton, NJ: Markus Wiener, 2005.
  73. See in particular the biographical introduction to Michel Chodkiewicz, The Spiritual Writings of Amir Abd Al-Kader, ISBN 978-0-7914-2446-9.
  74. From the article on Sufism in Oxford Islamic Studies Online
  75. 75.0 75.1 Muhammad Emin Er, Laws of the Heart: A Practical Introduction to the Sufi Order, Shifâ Publishers, 2008, ISBN 978-0-9815196-1-6
  76. For a systematic description of the diseases of the heart that are to be overcome in order for this perspective to take root, see Hamza Yusuf, Purification of the Heart: Signs, Symptoms and Cures of the Spiritual Diseases of the Heart, ISBN 978-1-929694-15-0.
  77. Concerning this, and for an excellent discussion of the concept of attraction (jadhba), see especially the Introduction to Abdullah Nur ad-Din Durkee, The School of the Shadhdhuliyyah, Volume One: Orisons, ISBN 977-00-1830-9.
  78. Muhammad Emin Er, al-Wasilat al-Fasila, unpublished MS.
  79. Realities of The Heart Lataif
  80. Annemarie Schimmel, Mystical Dimensions of Islam, ISBN 978-0-8078-1271-6 .
  81. See especially Robert Frager, Heart, Self & Soul: The Sufi Psychology of Growth, Balance, and Harmony, ISBN 978-0-8356-0778-0.
  82. Hakim Moinuddin Chisti, The Book of Sufi Healing, ISBN 978-0-89281-043-7
  83. For an introduction to the normative creed of Islam as espoused by the consensus of scholars, see Hamza Yusuf, The Creed of Imam al-Tahawi, ISBN 978-0-9702843-9-6, and Ahmad Ibn Muhammad Maghnisawi, Imam Abu Hanifa's Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar Explained, ISBN 978-1-933764-03-0.
  84. The meaning of certainty in this context is emphasized in Muhammad Emin Er, The Soul of Islam: Essential Doctrines and Beliefs, Shifâ Publishers, 2008, ISBN 978-0-9815196-0-9.
  85. See in particular the introduction by T. J. Winter to Abu Hamid Muhammad al-Ghazali, Al-Ghazali on Disciplining the Soul and on Breaking the Two Desires: Books XXII and XXIII of the Revival of the Religious Sciences, ISBN 978-0-946621-43-9.
  86. Akbar Ahmed, Diiscovering Islam, Making sense of Muslim History and Society,ISBN 0-415-28525-9(Pbk)
  87. Abdullah Jawadi Amuli, "Dhikr and the Wisdom Behind It"
  88. Hakim Moinuddin Chisti The Book of Sufi Healing, ISBN 978-0-89281-043-7
  89. Naqshbandi Way of Dhikr
  90. Touma 1996, p.162
  91. What is Remembrance and what is Contemplation?
  92. Muhammad Emin Er, Laws of the Heart: A Practical Introduction to the Sufi Path, ISBN 978-0-9815196-1-6, p. 77.
  93. 93.0 93.1 93.2 Salafi intolerance threatens Sufis| Baher Ibrahim| guardian.co.uk| 10 May 2010
  94. Mir, Tariq. "Kashmir: From Sufi to Salafi". November 5, 2012. Pulitzer Center on Crisis Reporting. Retrieved 20 February 2013. 
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  96. Momen, Moojan (1985). An Introduction to Shiʻi Islam: The History and Doctrines of Twelver Shiʻism. Yale University Press,. pp. 115–116. 
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  98. Dalrymple, William (5 November 2005). "What goes round...". The Guardian (London). 
  99. Introduction to Shi'i Islam, Momen, Moojan, Yale University Press, 1985 p.14-16
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  101. a think-tank based in Rawalpindi
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  103. John R. Schmidt states, "although most Deobandis are no more prone to violence than their Christian fundamentalist counterparts in the West, every jihadist group based in Pakistan save one is Deobandi, as are the Afghan Taliban". The Unraveling: Pakistan in the Age of Jihad | John R. Schmidt| 2011
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  105. Chakrabarty, Rakhi (Dec 4, 2011). "Sufis strike back". The Times of India. Retrieved 5 March 2013. 
  106. Researcher Amir Rana (a researcher and editor quarterly research journal Conflict and Peace Studies. What is young Pakistan thinking?) claims than Deobandi themselves are often Sufi, as "Naqshbandi, the major Sufi cult in Pakistan, is mainly comprised of the Deobandis" (source: Rana, Amir. "Where sufism stands". 1 August 2010. Express Tribune Blogs. Retrieved 4 March 2013. ). Maulana Qasim Nomani, the Rector of Deobandi seminary Darul Uloom Deoband has denied either that his school is anti-sufi or promotes militancy, stating Deoband scholars like Ashraf Ali Thanwi, and others were Sufi saints as well and they had their Khanqahs (Sufi hospice).
    Who said we are against Sufism? We very much follow the Sufi traditions and all of our elders were Sufi practitioners of Sufi tradition (source: Ali, Md. "Deoband hits back, rejects "baseless" charge of radicalizing Muslim youth". 19 October 2011. TwoCircles.net. Retrieved 4 March 2013. )
    According to the Jamestown Foundation, Deobandi have also been victims of sectarian strife.
    Scores of Deobandi leaders and members of Ahle Sunnat wal Jamat (ASWJ, formerly the banned Sipah-e-Sahaba Pakistan) have been assassinated in Karachi in recent years. Police sources say that the Sunni Tehrik, a Barelvi organization, is behind most of these assassinations. (source: Jamal, Arif. "Karachi's Deadly Political and Sectarian Warfare Threatens the Stability of Pakistan's Commercial Capital". Terrorism Monitor April 20, 2012. Jamestown Foundation. Retrieved 4 March 2013. )
  107. Timeline: Persecution of religious minorities| DAWN.COM | 4 November 2012
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  109. Azeem, Munawer (14 August 2011). "Two involved in Bari Imam suicide attack arrested". Dawn. Retrieved 4 March 2013. 
  110. Raja, Mudassir (31 July 2011). "Bari Imam Shrine attack 2005: Police await suspects on judicial remand in another case". Express Tribune. Retrieved 24 February 2013. 
  111. Bari Imam blast: Masterminds belong to LJ linked group By Shahzad Malik| 14 June 2005
  112. Three LJ activists indicted in Nishtar Park blast case, Dawn (newspaper), 2 September 2009
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  115. PESHAWAR: Another faith healer shot dead in Peshawar| By Ali Hazrat Bacha| dawn.com| 18 February 2009
  116. "In Pakistan, faith healers have no shortage of believers", Alex Rodriguez, Los Angeles Times, March 29, 2012
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  121. "LUBP | Sarfraz Naeemi". Criticalppp.com. Retrieved 24 February 2013. 
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  128. 128.0 128.1 "Clashes follow fire at Kashmir Sufi shrine". BBC News. 25 June 2012. Retrieved 7 March 2013. 
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  130. Ahmad, Mukhtar (June 25, 2012). "Fire destroys historic shrine, triggering anger in Kashmir". CNN. Retrieved 7 March 2013. 
  131. "Libya and Mali: Salafi Islamists destroying shrines courtesy of Saudi Arabia and Qatar". Modern Tokyo Times. 26 August 2012. Retrieved 24 February 2013. 
  132. Al Shabab of Somalia Destroy the Graves of Sufi Saints
  133. Timbuktu's Destruction: Why Islamists Are Wrecking Mali's Cultural Heritage| By Ishaan Tharoor|time.com| July 02, 2012
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  135. "Destroying the Shrines of Timbuktu: Some Arab Responses". Retrieved 24 February 2013. 
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  152. Muhammad Emin Er, The Soul of Islam: Essential Doctrines and Beliefs, Shifâ Publishers, 2008, ISBN 978-0-9815196-0-9.
  153. Annemarie Schimmel, Mystical Dimensions of Islam (1975) pg. 99
  154. (source: [pp. 778–795 of The Reliance of the Traveller, by Shaykh Nuh Ha Meem Keller])
  155. The Amman Message Summary. Retrieved on Feb 2, 2010.
  156. Neo-Sufism: The Case of Idries Shah
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  158. "Deen islam -Hizb ul Bahr - Litany of the Sea". Retrieved 27 September 2014. 
  159. K. al-Wasa'il, quoted in The Unlimited Mercifier, Stephen Hirtenstein, p. 246
  160. Memoirs of the Saints, p.108
  161. SILVA FILHO, Mário Alves da. A Mística Islâmica em Terræ Brasilis: o Sufismo e as Ordens Sufis em São Paulo. Dissertação (Mestrado em Ciências da Religião). São Paulo: PUC/SP, 2012.
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  163. "Mourides Celebrate 19 Years in North America" by Ayesha Attah. The African magazine. (n.d.) Retrieved 2007-11-13.
  164. Nasr, Seyyed Hossein (2007). The Garden of Truth. New York, NY: HarperCollins. p. 195. ISBN 978-0-06-162599-2. 
  165. "Sufia Noorbakhshia". Sufia Noorbakhshia. Retrieved 15 February 2015. 
  166. Beyond Lines of Control: Performance and Politics on the Disputed.  |first1= missing |last1= in Authors list (help)
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  168. Dr. Ronald Grisell (1983). Sufism. Ross Books. pp. 23. ISBN 978-0-89496-038-3
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Further reading

  • Abrahamov, Binyamin, Philosophical Mysticism, in Muhammad in History, Thought, and Culture: An Encyclopedia of the Prophet of God (2 vols.), Edited by C. Fitzpatrick and A. Walker, Santa Barbara, ABC-CLIO, 2014. ISBN 1610691776
  • Abun-Nasr, Jamil. Muslim Communities of Grace: The Sufi Brotherhoods in Islamic Religious Life. London, Hurst, 2007.
  • Al-Badawi, Mostafa. Sufi Sage of Arabia. Louisville: Fons Vitae, 2005.
  • Algan, Refik & Camille Adams Helminski, translators, Rumi's Sun: The Teachings of Shams of Tabriz, (Sandpoint, ID:Morning Light Press, 2008) ISBN 978-1-59675-020-3
  • Ali-Shah, Omar. The Rules or Secrets of the Naqshbandi Order, Tractus Publishers, 1992, ISBN 978-2-909347-09-7.
  • Angha, Nader. "Sufism: A Bridge Between Religions". MTO Shahmaghsoudi Publications, 2002, ISBN 0-910735-55-7
  • Angha, Nader. "Sufism: The Lecture Series". MTO Shahmaghsoudi Publications, 1997, ISBN 978-0-910735-74-2.
  • Angha, Nader. "Peace". MTO Shahmaghsoudi Publications, 1994, ISBN 978-0-910735-99-5.
  • Aractingi, Jean-Marc and Christian Lochon, Secrets initiatiques en Islam et rituels maçonniques-Ismaéliens, Druzes, Alaouites,Confréries soufies; éd. L'Harmattan, Paris, 2008 (ISBN 978-2-296-06536-9).
  • Arberry, A.J.. Mystical Poems of Rumi, Vols. 1&2. Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press, 1991.
  • Austin, R.W.J.. Sufis of Andalusia, Gloustershire: Beshara Publications, 1988.
  • Azeemi,Khwaja Shamsuddin. Muraqaba: Art and Science of Sufi Meditation, Houston:Plato Publishing,Inc., 2005, ISBN 0-9758875-4-8.
  • Barks, Coleman & John Moyne, translators, The Drowned Book: Ecstatic & Earthy Reflections of Bahauddin, the Father of Rumi, (NY: HarperCollins, 2004) ISBN 0-06-075063-4
  • Bewley, Aisha. The Darqawi Way. London: Diwan Press, 1981.
  • Burckhardt, Titus. An Introduction to Sufi Doctrine. Lahore: 1963.
  • Chopra, R M, "Great Sufi Poets of The Punjab", Iran Society, Calcutta, 1999.
  • Colby, Frederick. The Subtleties of the Ascension: Lata'if Al-Miraj: Early Mystical Sayings on Muhammad's Heavenly Journey. City: Fons Vitae, 2006.
  • Dahlén, Ashk, Sufi Islam, The World's Religions: Continuities and Transformations, ed. Peter B. Clarke & Peter Beyer, New York, 2008.
  • Dahlén, Ashk, Female Sufi Saints and Disciples: Women in the life of Jalal al-din Rumi, Orientalia Suecana, vol. 57, Uppsala, 2008.
  • Emin Er, Muhammad. Laws of the Heart: A Practical Introduction to the Sufi Path, Shifâ Publishers, 2008, ISBN 978-0-9815196-1-6.
  • Emin Er, Muhammad. The Soul of Islam: Essential Doctrines and Beliefs, Shifâ Publishers, 2008, ISBN 978-0-9815196-0-9.
  • Ernst, Carl. The Shambhala Guide to Sufism. HarperOne, 1999.
  • Fadiman, James and Frager, Robert. Essential Sufism. Boulder: Shambhala, 1997.
  • Farzan, Massud. The Tale of the Reed Pipe. New York: Dutton, 1974.
  • Gowins, Phillip. Sufism—A Path for Today: The Sovereign Soul. New Delhi: Readworthy Publications (P) Ltd., 2008. ISBN 978-81-89973-49-0
  • Khan, Inayat. "Part VI, Sufism". The Sufi message, Volume IX—The Unity of Religious Ideals
  • Koc, Dogan, "Gulen's Interpretation Of Sufism", Second International Conference on Islam in the Contemporary World: The Fethullah Gülen Movement in Thought and Practice, December 2008
  • Lewinsohn (ed.), The Heritage of Sufism, Volume I: Classical Persian Sufism from its Origins to Rumi (700-1300).
  • Michon, Jean-Louis. The Autobiography (Fahrasa) of a Moroccan Soufi: Ahmad Ibn 'Ajiba (1747–1809). Louisville: Fons Vitae, 1999.
  • Nurbakhsh, Javad, What is Sufism? electronic text derived from The Path, Khaniqahi Nimatullahi Publications, London, 2003 ISBN 0-933546-70-X.
  • Rahimi, Sadeq (2007). Intimate Exteriority: Sufi Space as Sanctuary for Injured Subjectivities in Turkey., Journal of Religion and Health, Vol. 46, No. 3, September 2007; pp. 409–422
  • Schimmel, Annemarie, Mystical Dimensions of Islam. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1983. ISBN 0-8078-1223-4
  • Schmidle, Nicholas, "Pakistan's Sufis Preach Faith and Ecstasy", Smithsonian magazine, December 2008
  • Sells, Michael (ed.), Early Islamic Mysticism: Sufi, Qur'an, Mi'raj, Poetic and Theological Writings, ISBN 978-0-8091-3619-3.
  • Shah, Idries. The Sufis. New York: Anchor Books, 1971, ISBN 0-385-07966-4.
  • Shah, Sirdar Ikbal Ali. "The General Principles of Sufism," The Hibbert Journal, Vol. XX, October 1921/ July 1922.
  • Shaikh Sharfuddin Maneri. Letters from a Sufi Teacher. Mountain View, CA: Golden Elixir Press, 2010. ISBN 978-0-9843082-4-8.
  • Seker, Nimet. Jewish and Muslim Mysticism: Jewish Mystics on the Sufi Path Qantara.de April 2010
  • Wilcox, Lynn. "Women and the Holy Qur'an: a Sufi Perspective". MTO Shahmaghsoudi Publications, 1998, ISBN 0-910735-65-4

External links

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