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Sunnah is the way of life prescribed as normative for Muslims on the basis of the teachings and practices of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and interpretations of the Islamic holy book, the Quran. The word sunnah (سنة, Arabic: [ˈsunna], plural سنن sunan [ˈsunan]) is derived from the root (سن [sa-n-na]), meaning smooth and easy flow or direct flow path. The word literally means a clear and well trodden path. In the discussion of the sources of religion, sunnah denotes the practices of Muhammad that he taught and practically instituted as a teacher of the sharia and the best exemplar. According to Muslim belief, this practice is to be adhered to in fulfilling the divine injunctions, carrying out religious rites, and moulding life in accord with the will of God. Instituting these practices was, as the Quran states, a part of Muhammad's responsibility as a messenger of God.
The sunnah of Muhammad includes his specific words, habits, practices, and silent approvals: it is significant because it addresses ways of life dealing with friends, family and government. Recording the sunnah was an Arabian tradition and, once people converted to Islam, they brought this custom to their religion. The sunnah is a source of Islamic law, second only to the Quran. The term "Sunni" denotes those who claim to practice these usages, as part of the Ummah.
Sunnah (سنة [ˈsunna], plural سنن sunan [ˈsunan]) is an Arabic word that means "habit" or "usual practice". Sunnis are also referred to as Ahl as-Sunnah wa'l-Jamā'ah ("people of the tradition and the community (of Muhammad)") or Ahl as-Sunnah for short.
Sunnah and hadith
In the context of biographical records of Muhammad, sunnah often stands synonymous with hadith since most of the personality traits of Muhammad are known from descriptions of him, his sayings and his actions after becoming a prophet at the age of forty. Sunnah, which consists of what Muhammad believed, implied, or tacitly approved, was recorded by his companions in hadith. Allegiance to the tribal sunnah had been partially replaced by submission to a new universal authority and the sense of brotherhood among Muslims.
Early Sunni scholars often considered sunnah equivalent to the biography of Muhammed (sira) as the hadith which was then poorly validated while contemporary accounts of Muhammad's life were better known. As the hadith came to be better documented and the scholars who validated them gained prestige, the sunnah came often to be known mostly through the hadith, especially as variant or fictional biographies of Muhammad spread.
How far hadith contributes to sunnah is disputed and highly dependent on context. Classical Islam often equates the sunnah with the hadith. Scholars who studied the narrations according to their context (matn) as well as their transmission (isnad) in order to discriminate between them were influential in the development of early Muslim philosophy. In the context of sharia, Malik ibn Anas and the Hanafi scholars are assumed to have differentiated between the two: for example Malik is said to have rejected some traditions that reached him because, according to him, they were against the "established practice of the people of Medina".
Sunnah and Islam
Passages in the Quran command that Muhammad be followed, such as surah 3 (Al Imran) ayah 32, "Obey Allah and His Messenger". For Muslims the imitation of Muhammad helps one to know and be loved by God: one lives in constant remembrance of God.
Shia Muslims do not use the Kutub al-Sittah (six major hadith collections) followed by the Sunni. Instead, their primary collections were written by three authors known as the 'Three Muhammads'. They are: Kitab al-Kafi by Muhammad ibn Ya'qub al-Kulayni al-Razi (329 AH), Man la yahduruhu al-Faqih by Ibn Babawayh and Tahdhib al-Ahkam and Al-Istibsar both by Shaykh Tusi. Unlike Akhbari Twelver Shia, Usuli Twelver Shia scholars do not believe that everything in the four major books is authentic. In Shia hadith one often finds sermons attributed to Ali in The Four Books or in the Nahj al-Balagha.
Traditional Sunni Muslims believe that the sunnah is justified by verses such as "A similar (favour have ye already received) in that We have sent among you a Messenger of your own, rehearsing to you Our Signs, and sanctifying you, and instructing you in Scripture and Wisdom, and in new knowledge. The verse "Ye have indeed in the Messenger of Allah a beautiful pattern (of conduct) for any one whose hope is in Allah and the Final Day, and who engages much in the Praise of Allah." further emphasizes that Muhammad's mission is to teach and exemplify the Quran, not just to relate its verses and leave. Muhammad was not to be worshipped or deified but his role was to deliver the Quran with comprehensive explanations of how to live according to the Quranic guidelines preserved in sunnah. The teachings of "wisdom" have been declared to be a function of Muhammad along with the teachings of the scripture.
For a better understanding of "wisdom" (hikmah), one can refer to the Quran itself. For example, surah 4 (An-Nisa), ayah 113 states; "For Allah hath sent down to thee the Book and wisdom and taught thee what thou Knewest not (before): And great is the Grace of Allah unto thee." Surah 2 (Al-Baqara), ayah 231 states; "...but remember Allah's grace upon you and that which He hath revealed unto you of the Scripture and of wisdom, whereby He doth exhort you." Surah 33 (Al-Ahzab), ayah 34 states, "And bear in mind which is recited in your houses of the revelations of God and of wisdom".
Some have said that "wisdom" here is simply another name for sunnah. Therefore, along with divine revelation the sunnah was directly taught by God. Modern Sunni scholars are beginning to examine both the sira and the hadith in order to justify modifications to jurisprudence (fiqh). The sunna, in one form or another, would retain its central role in providing a moral example and ethical guidance.
Alternative views on sunnah
According to the view of some Sufi Muslims who incorporate both the outer and inner reality of Muhammad, the deeper and true sunnah are the noble characteristics and inner state of Muhammad. To them Muhammad's attitude, his piety, the quality of his character constitute the truer and deeper aspect of what it means by sunnah in Islam, rather than the external aspects alone. They argue that the external customs of Muhammad loses its meaning without the inner attitude and also many Hadeeths are simply custom of the Arabs, not something that is unique to Muhammad. and Khuluqin Azim or 'Exalted Character' in the Quran, real sunnah cannot be upheld.
According to some scholars, sunnah predates both the Quran as well as Muhammad, and is actually the tradition of the prophets of God, specifically the tradition of Abraham. From surah 17 (Al-Isra) ayah 77, "(This was Our) way with the messengers We sent before thee: thou wilt find no change in Our ways."
Perform As-Salat (Iqamat-as-Salat ie. prayer) from mid-day till the darkness of the night (i.e. the Zuhr, Asr, Maghrib, and Isha prayers), and recite the Quran in the early dawn (i.e. the morning prayer).
Establish regular prayers - at the sun's decline till the darkness of the night, and the morning prayer and reading: for the prayer and reading in the morning carry their testimony."
And pray in the small watches of the morning: (it would be) an additional prayer (or spiritual profit) for thee: soon will thy Lord raise thee to a Station of Praise and Glory!
How the prayer is practiced is retrieved from hadeeths (story, narrations, interpretations, traditions) of Muhammad by his companions.
A broad form of sunnah was already being practised by the Christians, Jews and the Arab descendants of Ishmael, the Arabized Arabs or Ishmaelites, when Muhammad reinstituted this practice as an integral part of Islam. Both sunnah and Quran are equally authentic and the former includes worship rituals like salat, Zakat, Hajj, fasting (sawm) during Ramadan as well as customs like circumcision.
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- Islahi, Amin Ahsan (1989). "Difference between Hadith and Sunnah". Mabadi Tadabbur i Hadith (translated as: Fundamentals of Hadith Intrepretation) (in Urdu). Lahore: Al-Mawrid. Retrieved 1 June 2011.
- Quran 3:164
- Quran 33:21
- Nasr, Seyyed H. "Sunnah and Hadith". World Spirituality: An Encyclopedia History of the Religious Quest. 19 vols. New York: Crossroad Swag. 97–109.
- Goldziher, Ignác (1981). Introduction to Islamic Theology and Law. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP. p. 231. ISBN 0691072574.
- Nasr, S. (1967). Islamic Studies. Beirut: Seyyed Hossein Nasr.
- Okumus, Fatih. "The Prophet As Example". Studies in Inter religious Dialogue 18 (2008): 82–95. Religion Index. Ebsco. Thomas Tredway Library, Rock Island, IL.
- Quran 3:32
- Momen, Moojan (1985). Introduction to Shi'i Islam. New Haven: Yale University Press. p. 174. ISBN 0300034997.
- Quran 2:151
- Muhammad Manzoor Nomani "Marif al-Hadith", introductory chapter
- Quran 4:113
- Quran 2:231
- Quran 33:34
- Recognizing the True and Deeper Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad
- Quran 68:4
- Quran 17:77
- Quran 17:78–79
- Ghamidi, Javed Ahmad (1990). Mizan (translated as: Islam - A Comprehensive Introduction) (in Urdu). Lahore: Al-Mawrid. Retrieved 1 June 2011.
- Difference between Hadith and Sunnah
- Hamza, Feras, "Sunna", in Muhammad in History, Thought, and Culture: An Encyclopedia of the Prophet of God (2 vols.), Edited by C. Fitzpatrick and A. Walker, Santa Barbara, ABC-CLIO, 2014, Vol II, pp. 610–619.
- Musa, Aisha Y. (2008). Hadith as Scripture: Discussions on the Authority of Prophetic Traditions in Islam. New York: Palgrave. ISBN 0230605354.
|40x40px||Wikisource has the text of the 1905 New International Encyclopedia article Sunna.|
- The Meaning of "Sunna" in the Qur’an, Qur'anic Studies
- Sunnah and Hadith, Center For Muslim–Jewish Engagement
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