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Open Access Articles- Top Results for Swimming at the Summer Olympics

Swimming at the Summer Olympics

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Swimming at the Summer Olympics
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Governing body FINA
Events 34 (men: 17; women: 17)
Games
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1924 1928 1932 1936 1948 1952
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1980 1984 1988 1992

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Swimming has been a sport at every modern Summer Olympics. It has been open to women since 1912. Along with track & field athletics and gymnastics it is one of the most popular spectator sports at the Games and the one with the second largest number of events (after Athletics).

Men's events

Event 96 00 04 08 12 20 24 28 32 36 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 Years
Current program
50 metre freestyle X[1] X X X X X X X 8
100 metre freestyle X X[1] X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 26
200 metre freestyle X X[1] X X X X X X X X X X X X 14
400 metre freestyle X[1] X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 25
1500 metre freestyle X[1] X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 25
100 metre backstroke X[1] X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 24
200 metre backstroke X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 14
100 metre breaststroke X X X X X X X X X X X X 12
200 metre breaststroke X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 24
100 metre butterfly X X X X X X X X X X X X 12
200 metre butterfly X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 15
200 metre individual medley X X X X X X X X X X 10
400 metre individual medley X X X X X X X X X X X X X 13
4 × 100 metre freestyle relay X X X X X X X X X X X 11
4 × 200 metre freestyle relay X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 24
4 × 100 metre medley relay X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 14
Marathon 10 km X X 2
Past events
500 metre freestyle X 1
880 yard freestyle X[1] 1
1000 metre freestyle X 1
1200 metre freestyle X 1
4000 metre freestyle X 1
400 metre breaststroke X[1] X X 3
4 × 50 yard freestyle relay X[1] 1
200 metre team swimming X 1
200 metre obstacle event X 1
Underwater swimming X 1
100 metre freestyle for sailors X 1
Events 4 7 9 6 7 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 8 10 15 15 13 13 15 16 16 16 16 16 17 17

Women's events

Event 96 00 04 08 12 20 24 28 32 36 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 Years
50 metre freestyle X X X X X X X 7
100 metre freestyle X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 23
200 metre freestyle X X X X X X X X X X X X 12
400 metre freestyle X[2] X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 22
800 metre freestyle X X X X X X X X X X X X 12
100 metre backstroke X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 21
200 metre backstroke X X X X X X X X X X X X 12
100 metre breaststroke X X X X X X X X X X X X 12
200 metre breaststroke X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 21
100 metre butterfly X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 15
200 metre butterfly X X X X X X X X X X X X 12
200 metre individual medley X X X X X X X X X X 10
400 metre individual medley X X X X X X X X X X X X X 13
4 × 100 metre freestyle relay X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 23
4 × 200 metre freestyle relay X X X X X 5
4 × 100 metre medley relay X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 14
Marathon 10 km X X 2
Events 2 3 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 7 8 14 14 13 13 14 15 15 16 16 16 17 17

Olympic records

The International Olympic Committee recognise the best performances in all 32 current pool-based swimming events at the Games as Olympic records.

Medal table

Updated after 2012 Summer Olympics

Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1 United States United States (USA) 230 164 126 520
2 Australia Australia (AUS) 57 60 61 178
3 East Germany East Germany (GDR) 38 32 22 92
4 Hungary Hungary (HUN) 25 23 18 66
5 Japan Japan (JPN) 20 24 29 73
6 Netherlands Netherlands (NED) 19 18 19 56
7 Great Britain Great Britain (GBR) 15 22 30 67
8 Germany Germany (GER) 13 18 28 59
9 Soviet Union Soviet Union (URS) 12 21 26 59
10 China China (CHN) 12 17 8 37
11 Sweden Sweden (SWE) 8 14 13 35
12 France France (FRA) 8 13 19 40
13 Canada Canada (CAN) 7 14 21 42
14 South Africa South Africa (RSA) 6 3 6 15
15 Unified Team Unified Team (EUN) 6 3 1 10
16 Russia Russia (RUS) 5 7 7 19
17 Ukraine Ukraine (UKR) 4 5 1 10
18 Italy Italy (ITA) 4 4 9 17
19 West Germany West Germany (FRG) 3 5 14 22
20 Romania Romania (ROU) 3 2 4 9
21 Ireland Ireland (IRL) 3 0 1 4
22 Denmark Denmark (DEN) 2 5 5 12
23 Zimbabwe Zimbabwe (ZIM) 2 4 1 7
24 Australasia Australasia (ANZ) 2 3 3 8
25 New Zealand New Zealand (NZL) 2 1 3 6
26 Austria Austria (AUT) 1 6 4 11
27 Unified Team of Germany Unified Team of Germany (EUA) 1 5 6 12
28 Brazil Brazil (BRA) 1 4 8 13
29 Greece Greece (GRE) 1 3 3 7
30 Poland Poland (POL) 1 3 2 6
31 South Korea South Korea (KOR) 1 3 0 4
32 Spain Spain (ESP) 1 2 3 6
33 Belgium Belgium (BEL) 1 1 2 4
Costa Rica Costa Rica (CRC) 1 1 2 4
35 Argentina Argentina (ARG) 1 1 1 3
Bulgaria Bulgaria (BUL) 1 1 1 3
37 Yugoslavia Yugoslavia (YUG) 1 1 0 2
38 Suriname Suriname (SUR) 1 0 1 2
Mexico Mexico (MEX) 1 0 1 2
Tunisia Tunisia (TUN) 2 0 1 3
41 Lithuania Lithuania (LTU) 1 0 0 1
42 Belarus Belarus (BLR) 0 2 0 2
Slovakia Slovakia (SVK) 0 2 0 2
44 Finland Finland (FIN) 0 1 3 4
45 Cuba Cuba (CUB) 0 1 1 2
Norway Norway (NOR) 0 1 1 2
47 Croatia Croatia (CRO) 0 1 0 1
Serbia Serbia (SRB) 0 1 0 1
Slovenia Slovenia (SLO) 0 1 0 1
50 Philippines Philippines (PHI) 0 0 2 2
51 Switzerland Switzerland (SUI) 0 0 1 1
[[File:Template:Country flag IOC alias TRI|22x20px|border|alt=|link=|Template:Country IOC alias TRI]] [[Template:Country IOC alias TRI at the Olympics|Template:Country IOC alias TRI]] (TRI) 0 0 1 1
Venezuela Venezuela (VEN) 0 0 1 1
Total 522 519 521 1562

Nations

Nation 96 00 04 08 12 20 24 28 32 36 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 Years
Argentina Argentina (ARG) 4 4 22
Australasia Australasia (ANZ) 5 9 2
Australia Australia (AUS) 1 6 5 5 22
Austria Austria (AUT) 2 3 1 1 8 3 25
Belgium Belgium (BEL) 1 7 5 12 6 5 24
Brazil Brazil (BRA) 2 25 19
Canada Canada (CAN) 1 1 3 2 6 23
Chile Chile (CHI) 4 23
Czechoslovakia Czechoslovakia (TCH) 4 9 1 17
Denmark Denmark (DEN) 1 5 1 4 5 23
East Germany East Germany (GDR) 5
Estonia Estonia (EST) 1 4 1 4 6 9 6
Finland Finland (FIN) 3 6 1 2 1 23
France France (FRA) 47 4 3 13 20 13 24
Germany Germany (GER) 6 4 5 17 19 13
Great Britain Great Britain (GBR) 7 25 18 18 26 21 15 22 32 26 22 32 33 27 36 40 32 44 31 28 39 32 37 24 24
Greece Greece (GRE) 15 1 1 22
Hungary Hungary (HUN) 1 1 2 10 8 6 8 25
Ireland Ireland (IRL) 2 23
Italy Italy (ITA) 2 4 2 4 6 5 24
Japan Japan (JPN) 2 6 10 19
Latvia Latvia (LAT) 1 4 4 5 2 5
Lithuania Lithuania (LTU) 2 8 6 10 9 4 6
Luxembourg Luxembourg (LUX) 2 4 3 21
Netherlands Netherlands (NED) 4 7 4 12 14 23
New Zealand New Zealand (NZL) 1 1 4 20
Norway Norway (NOR) 5 2 1 1
Panama Panama (PAN) 1 23
Philippines Philippines (PHI) 2 23
Poland Poland (POL) 2 23
Portugal Portugal (POR) 1 22
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico (PUR) 12 X 5 3 6 7 3 6 4
Russia Russia (RUS) 4 6
South Africa South Africa (RSA) 1 1 5 16
Spain Spain (ESP) 2 4 5 11 21 18 23 16 23 20
Sweden Sweden (SWE) 1 12 24 13 14 9 24 18 17 18 16 15 18 24
Switzerland Switzerland (SUI) 4 2 1
Soviet Union Soviet Union (URS) X 9
United States United States (USA) 1 2 25 8 7 22 26 23 51 X 43 44 40 44 48 43 43 25
Yugoslavia Yugoslavia (YUG) 6 22
Nations 4 12 4 14 17 19 23 28 33 45 42 51 52 51 41 67 77 92
Swimmers 19 76 32 100 120 116 118 182 235 380 405 468 532 471 333 494 633 641
Year 96 00 04 08 12 20 24 28 32 36 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 26

Notable changes to the sport

Times have consistently dropped over the years due to better training techniques and to new developments in the sport.

In the first four Olympics, competitions were not held in pools, but rather in open water (1896, the Mediterranean Sea; 1900, the Seine; 1904, an artificial lake; 1906, the Mediterranean). The 1904 Olympics' races were the only ones ever measured at yards, instead of the usual metres. A 100-metre pool was built for the 1908 Olympics and sat in the centre of the main stadium's track and field oval. The 1912 Olympics, held in the Stockholm harbour, marked the beginning of electrical timing.

Male swimmers wore full body swimsuits up until the 1940s, which caused more drag in the water than their modern swim-wear counterparts. Also, over the years, pool designs have lessened the drag. Some design considerations allow for the reduction of swimming resistance making the pool faster. Namely, proper pool depth, elimination of waves, elimination of currents, increased lane width, energy absorbing racing lane lines and gutters, and the use of other innovative hydraulic, acoustic, illumination, and swimwear designs.

The 1924 Olympics were the first to use the standard 50 metre pool with marked lanes. In the freestyle, swimmers originally dove from the pool walls, but diving blocks were incorporated starting at the 1936 Summer Olympics. The flip-turn was developed by the 1950s. Swimming goggles were first allowed in 1976.

The butterfly stroke events were not held until 1956. According to the rules before then, the butterfly stroke was allowed in the breaststroke races - but then the contest rules were changed, abolishing the use of the butterfly stroke in the breaststroke races.

Women were first allowed the longer distance of 800 metres freestyle in 1968, which remains the longest distance for women. Up until then, women were considered to be too "delicate" to swim a race this long, even though the men had had the 1,500 metre freestyle from the very early years.

Both men and women were granted the 200 metre freestyle race in 1968, giving swimmers an intermediate distance race between 100 metres and 400 metres.

Women's teams were first granted the 800 metre freestyle relay race in 1996 - even though there had been a men's relay race at that distance since 1912. At six Olympiads, the men had two freestyle relay races, but the women only had one. Now, both sexes have two.

The medley relay races (4×100 metres) were not held for men or for women until 1960, but they have continued in every Olympiad since then.

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Distances at the 1904 Olympics were measured in yards rather than metres. The 50 yard freestyle was 45.7 metres and the 100 yard freestyle and backstroke races were 91.4 metres. The 220, 440, and 880 yard freestyle races were 201, 402, and 804 metres, respectively. Instead of a 1500 metre race, there was a 1 mile race which made for 1609 metres. The 440 yard breaststroke, like the freestyle, was 402 metres. The relay, 4 × 50 yards, was 4 × 45.7 metres.
  2. ^ In 1920, the women's event was 300 metres.

See also

References

External links