Open Access Articles- Top Results for TGF beta 1

TGF beta 1

SymbolsTGFB1 ; CED; DPD1; LAP; TGFB; TGFbeta
External IDsOMIM190180 MGI98725 HomoloGene540 ChEMBL: 1795178 GeneCards: TGFB1 Gene
RNA expression pattern
File:PBB GE TGFB1 203085 s at.png
File:PBB GE TGFB1 203084 at.png
More reference expression data
RefSeq (mRNA)NM_000660NM_011577
RefSeq (protein)NP_000651NP_035707
Location (UCSC)Chr 19:
41.81 – 41.86 Mb
Chr 7:
25.69 – 25.71 Mb
PubMed search[1][2]

Transforming growth factor beta 1 or TGF-β1 is a polypeptide member of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily of cytokines. It is a secreted protein that performs many cellular functions, including the control of cell growth, cell proliferation, cell differentiation and apoptosis. In humans, TGF-β1 is encoded by the TGFB1 gene.[1][2]


TGF-β is a multifunctional set of peptides that controls proliferation, differentiation, and other functions in many cell types. TGF-β acts synergistically with TGFA in inducing transformation. It also acts as a negative autocrine growth factor. Dysregulation of TGF-β activation and signaling may result in apoptosis. Many cells synthesize TGF-β and almost all of them have specific receptors for this peptide. TGF-β1, TGF-β2 , and TGF-β3 all function through the same receptor signaling systems.[3]

TGF-β1 was first identified in human platelets as a protein with a molecular mass of 25 kilodaltons with a potential role in wound healing.[4] It was later characterized as a large protein precursor (containing 390 amino acids) that was proteolytically processed to produce a mature peptide of 112 amino acids.[5]

TGF-β1 plays an important role in controlling the immune system, and shows different activities on different types of cell, or cells at different developmental stages. Most immune cells (or leukocytes) secrete TGF-β1.[6]

T cells

Some T cells (e.g. regulatory T cells) release TGF-β1 to inhibit the actions of other T cells. Interleukin 1- and interleukin 2-dependent proliferation of activated T cells,[7][8] and the activation of quiescent helper T cells and cytotoxic T cells is prevented by the activity of TGF-β1.[9][10] Similarly, TGF-β1 can inhibit the secretion and activity of many other cytokines including interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and various interleukins. It can also decrease the expression levels of cytokine receptors, such as the IL-2 receptor to down-regulate the activity of immune cells. However, TGF-β1 can also increase the expression of certain cytokines in T cells and promote their proliferation, particularly if the cells are immature.[6]

B cells

TGF-β1 has similar effects on B cells that also vary according to the differentiation state of the cell. It inhibits proliferation and stimulates apoptosis of B cells,[11] and plays a role in controlling the expression of antibody, transferrin and MHC class II proteins on immature and mature B cells.[6][11]

Myeloid cells

The effects of TGF-β1 on macrophages and monocytes is predominantly suppressive; this cytokine can inhibit the proliferation of these cells and prevent their production of reactive oxygen (e.g. superoxide (O2)) and nitrogen (e.g. nitric oxide (NO)) intermediates. However, as with other cell types, TGF-β1 can also have the opposite effect on cells of myeloid origin. For example, TGF-β1 acts as a chemoattractant, directing an immune response to some pathogens; macrophages and monocytes respond to low levels of TGF-β1 in a chemotactic manner. Furthermore, the expression of monocytic cytokines (including interleukin-1(IL-1)-alpha, IL-1-beta, and TNF-α),[10] and phagocytic killing by macrophages can be increased by the action of TGF-β1.[6]


TGF beta 1 has been shown to interact with:


  1. ^ Ghadami M, Makita Y, Yoshida K, Nishimura G, Fukushima Y, Wakui K et al. (January 2000). "Genetic mapping of the Camurati-Engelmann disease locus to chromosome 19q13.1-q13.3". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 66 (1): 143–7. PMC 1288319. PMID 10631145. doi:10.1086/302728. 
  2. ^ Vaughn SP, Broussard S, Hall CR, Scott A, Blanton SH, Milunsky JM et al. (May 2000). "Confirmation of the mapping of the Camurati-Englemann locus to 19q13. 2 and refinement to a 3.2-cM region". Genomics 66 (1): 119–21. PMID 10843814. doi:10.1006/geno.2000.6192. 
  3. ^ "Entrez Gene: TGFB1 transforming growth factor, beta 1". 
  4. ^ Assoian RK, Komoriya A, Meyers CA, Miller DM, Sporn MB (1983). "Transforming growth factor-beta in human platelets. Identification of a major storage site, purification, and characterization". J. Biol. Chem. 258 (11): 7155–60. PMID 6602130. 
  5. ^ Derynck R, Jarrett JA, Chen EY, Eaton DH, Bell JR, Assoian RK et al. (1985). "Human transforming growth factor-beta complementary DNA sequence and expression in normal and transformed cells". Nature 316 (6030): 701–5. PMID 3861940. doi:10.1038/316701a0. 
  6. ^ a b c d Letterio JJ, Roberts AB (1998). "Regulation of immune responses by TGF-beta". Annu. Rev. Immunol. 16: 137–61. PMID 9597127. doi:10.1146/annurev.immunol.16.1.137. 
  7. ^ Wahl SM, Hunt DA, Wong HL, Dougherty S, McCartney-Francis N, Wahl LM et al. (1988). "Transforming growth factor-beta is a potent immunosuppressive agent that inhibits IL-1-dependent lymphocyte proliferation". J. Immunol. 140 (9): 3026–32. PMID 3129508. 
  8. ^ Tiemessen MM, Kunzmann S, Schmidt-Weber CB, Garssen J, Bruijnzeel-Koomen CA, Knol EF et al. (2003). "Transforming growth factor-beta inhibits human antigen-specific CD4+ T cell proliferation without modulating the cytokine response". Int. Immunol. 15 (12): 1495–504. PMID 14645158. doi:10.1093/intimm/dxg147. 
  9. ^ Gilbert KM, Thoman M, Bauche K, Pham T, Weigle WO (1997). "Transforming growth factor-beta 1 induces antigen-specific unresponsiveness in naive T cells". Immunol. Invest. 26 (4): 459–72. PMID 9246566. doi:10.3109/08820139709022702. 
  10. ^ a b Wahl SM, Wen J, Moutsopoulos N (2006). "TGF-beta: a mobile purveyor of immune privilege". Immunol. Rev. 213: 213–27. PMID 16972906. doi:10.1111/j.1600-065X.2006.00437.x. 
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  12. ^ Hildebrand A, Romarís M, Rasmussen LM, Heinegård D, Twardzik DR, Border WA et al. (September 1994). "Interaction of the small interstitial proteoglycans biglycan, decorin and fibromodulin with transforming growth factor beta". Biochem. J. 302 ( Pt 2): 527–34. PMC 1137259. PMID 8093006. 
  13. ^ Schönherr E, Broszat M, Brandan E, Bruckner P, Kresse H (July 1998). "Decorin core protein fragment Leu155-Val260 interacts with TGF-beta but does not compete for decorin binding to type I collagen". Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 355 (2): 241–8. PMID 9675033. doi:10.1006/abbi.1998.0720. 
  14. ^ Takeuchi Y, Kodama Y, Matsumoto T (Dec 1994). "Bone matrix decorin binds transforming growth factor-beta and enhances its bioactivity". J. Biol. Chem. 269 (51): 32634–8. PMID 7798269. 
  15. ^ Choy L, Derynck R (November 1998). "The type II transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta receptor-interacting protein TRIP-1 acts as a modulator of the TGF-beta response". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (47): 31455–62. PMID 9813058. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.47.31455. 
  16. ^ Saharinen J, Keski-Oja J (August 2000). "Specific sequence motif of 8-Cys repeats of TGF-beta binding proteins, LTBPs, creates a hydrophobic interaction surface for binding of small latent TGF-beta". Mol. Biol. Cell 11 (8): 2691–704. PMC 14949. PMID 10930463. doi:10.1091/mbc.11.8.2691. 
  17. ^ Ebner R, Chen RH, Lawler S, Zioncheck T, Derynck R (November 1993). "Determination of type I receptor specificity by the type II receptors for TGF-beta or activin". Science 262 (5135): 900–2. PMID 8235612. doi:10.1126/science.8235612. 
  18. ^ Oh SP, Seki T, Goss KA, Imamura T, Yi Y, Donahoe PK et al. (March 2000). "Activin receptor-like kinase 1 modulates transforming growth factor-beta 1 signaling in the regulation of angiogenesis". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97 (6): 2626–31. PMC 15979. PMID 10716993. doi:10.1073/pnas.97.6.2626. 
  19. ^ McGonigle S, Beall MJ, Feeney EL, Pearce EJ (February 2001). "Conserved role for 14-3-3epsilon downstream of type I TGFbeta receptors". FEBS Lett. 490 (1-2): 65–9. PMID 11172812. doi:10.1016/s0014-5793(01)02133-0. 

Further reading