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Tall ship

"Tall Ships" redirects here. For the band, see Tall Ships (band).

A tall ship is a large, traditionally-rigged sailing vessel. Popular modern tall ship rigs include topsail schooners, brigantines, brigs and barques. "Tall Ship" can also be defined more specifically by an organization, such as for a race or festival.

History

Traditional rigging may include square rigs and gaff rigs, usually with separate topmasts and topsails. It is generally more complex than modern rigging, which utilizes newer materials such as aluminum and steel to construct taller, lightweight masts with fewer, more versatile sails. Most smaller, modern vessels use the Bermuda rig. Though it did not become popular elsewhere until the twentieth century, this rig was developed in Bermuda in the seventeenth century, and had historically been used on its small ships, the Bermuda sloops.

Author and master mariner Joseph Conrad (who spent 1874 to 1894 at sea in tall ships and was quite particular about naval terminology) used the term "tall ship" in his works; for example, in The Mirror of the Sea in 1903. If Conrad used the term, it is fairly certain "tall ship" was common parlance among his fellow mariners in the last quarter of the 19th century.

Henry David Thoreau also references the term "tall ship" in his first work, A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers, quoting "Down out at its mouth, the dark inky main blending with the blue above. Plum Island, its sand ridges scolloping along the horizon like the sea-serpent, and the distant outline broken by many a tall ship, leaning, still, against the sky." He does not cite this quotation, but the work was written in 1849.[1]

While Sail Training International (STI) has extended the definition of tall ship for the purpose of its races to embrace any sailing vessel with more than Script error: No such module "convert". waterline length and on which at least half the people on board are aged 15 to 25, this definition can include many modern sailing yachts, so for the purposes of this article, tall ship will mainly refer to those vessels rated as class "A".

Sail Training International

In the 21st century, "tall ship" is often used generically for large, classic, sailing vessels, but is also a technically defined term by Sail Training International for its purposes and of course, STI helped popularize the term. The exact definitions have changed somewhat over time, and are subject to various technicalities, but by 2011 there were 4 classes (A, B, C, and D). Basically there are only two size classes, A is over 40 m LOA, and B/C/D are 9.14 m to under 40 m LOA. The definitions have to do with rigging: class A is for square sail rigged ships, class B is for "traditionally rigged" ships, class C is for "modern rigged" vessels with no "spinnaker-like sails", and class D is the same as class C but carrying a spinnaker-like sail.[2] The STI definitions can be found here and a ship database here.

Class A

All square-rigged vessels (barque, barquentine, brig, brigantine or ship rigged) and all other vessel more than 40 metres Length Overall (LOA), regardless of rig. STI classifies its A Class as "all square-rigged vessels and all other vessels over Script error: No such module "convert". length overall (LOA)", in this case STI LOA excludes bowsprit and aft spar. STI defines LOA as "Length overall measured from the fore side of stem post to aft side of stern post, counter or transom".[3]

Class A Tall Ships
Current
Name
Current Nationality Original
Delivery
Mast Rig Length excluding
bowsprit [m]
Beam [m]
ALEX II 23x15px Germany 2011 3 Barque 60 10.8 X
Alpha 23x15px Russia 1948 2 Barquentine 8.9
Amerigo Vespucci 23x15px Italy 1931 3 Full rigged ship 82.4 15.8
Belem 23x15px France 1896 3 Barque 51 8.8
Capitain Miranda 23x15px Uruguay 1930 3 Staysail Schooner 50.3 7.9 X
Christian Radich 23x15px Norway 1937 3 Full rigged ship 62.5 9.7
Cisne Branco 23x15px Brazil 1999 3 Full rigged ship 60.5 10.7
Constitution 23x15px United States 1797 3 Full rigged ship 62
Creole 23x15px United Kingdom 1927 3 Schooner 42.7 8.9
Creoula 23x15px Portugal 1937 4 Schooner 62.2
Cuauhtemoc 23x15px Mexico 1982 3 Barque 67.2 12.0
Danmark 23x15px Denmark 1932 3 Full rigged ship 59.8 10.1
Dar Młodzieży 23x15px Poland 1982 3 Full rigged ship 94.8 14.0
Dewaruci Template:Country data Indonesia 1953 3 Barquentine 49.7 9.4
Druzhba 23x15px Ukraine 1987 3 Full rigged ship 94.2 14
Eagle 23x15px United States 1936 3 Barque 80.7 11.9
Eendracht 23x15px Netherlands 1989 3 Gaff Schooner 55.3 12.2
Elissa 23x15px United States 1877 3 Barque 45.4 8.5
Esmeralda 23x15px Chile 1953 4 Barquentine 94.13 13.1
Eugene Eugenides 23x15px Greece 1959 3 Topgallant Schooner 9.2
Europa 23x15px Netherlands 1911 3 Barque 44.5 7.3
Gazela 23x15px United States 1901 3 Barquentine 42.7 7.9
Georg Stage (II) 23x15px Denmark 1935 3 Full rigged ship 42 8.5
Gloria 23x15px Colombia 1968 3 Barque 67 10.7
Golden Quest 23x15px Tuvalu 1945 3 Barque 48 7.5
Gorch Fock (I) 23x15px Germany 1933 3 Barque 73.7 11.9
Gorch Fock (II) 23x15px Germany 1958 3 Barque 81.2 11.9
Greif 23x15px Germany 1950 2 Brigantine 7.4
Großherzogin Elizabeth 23x15px Germany 1908 3 Gaff Schooner 53 8.2
Guayas 23x15px Ecuador 1977 3 Barque 56.10 10.4
Iskra (II) 23x15px Poland 1982 3 Barquentine 40 7.9
Jadran 23x15px Montenegro 1933 3 Topsail Schooner 8.9
James Craig 23x15px Australia 1874 3 Barque 54.8 9.5
Jessica 23x15px Australia 1983 3 Topsail Schooner 6.7
Juan Sebastián Elcano 23x15px Spain 1927 4 Topsail Schooner 94.13 13.1
Kaiwo Maru II Template:Country data Japan 1989 4 Barque 89.0 13.8
Kaliakra 23x15px Bulgaria 1984 3 Barquentine 43.2 7.9
Khersones 23x15px Ukraine 1989 3 Full rigged ship 94.8 14.0
Kruzenshtern 23x15px Russia 1926 4 Barque 95 14.0
Leeuwin II 23x15px Australia 1986 3 Barquentine 41.2 9.0
Libertad 23x15px Argentina 1960 3 Full rigged ship 91.7 13.7
Lord Nelson 23x15px United Kingdom 1985 3 Barque 40.2 8.5
Mercator 23x15px Belgium 1932 3 Barquentine 68 11.9 X
Meridian 23x15px Lithuania 1948 3 Barquentine 8.9 X
Mir 23x15px Russia 1987 3 Full rigged ship 94.8 14.0
Mircea 23x15px Romania 1938 3 Barque 73.7 12.5
Morgenster 23x15px Netherlands 1919 2 Brig 38.0 6.0
U.S. Brig Niagara 23x15px United States 1988 2 Brig 37.5 9.8
Nippon Maru II Template:Country data Japan 1984 4 Barque 89.0 13.8
Oosterschelde 23x15px Netherlands 1918 3 Topsail Schooner 40.12 7.5
Palinuro 23x15px Italy 1934 3 Barquentine 58.7 10.1
Pallada 23x15px Russia 1989 3 Full rigged ship 94.2 14.0
Peacemaker 23x15px United States 1989 3 Barquentine 38 10.4
Picton Castle 23x15px Canada 1928 3 Barque 45.2 7.3
Pogoria 23x15px Poland 1980 3 Barquentine 40.9 7.9
Rah Naward 23x15px Pakistan 2001 2 Brig 40.6 9.9
Roald Amundsen 23x15px Germany 1952 2 Brig 40.8
Sagres III 23x15px Portugal 1937 3 Barque 81.3 11.9
STS Sedov 23x15px Russia 1921 4 Barque 108.7 14.6
Shabab Oman 23x15px Oman 1971 3 Barquentine 43.9 8.5
Simón Bolívar 23x15px Venezuela 1979 3 Barque 70.0 10.4
Sørlandet 23x15px Norway 1927 3 Full rigged ship 56.7 9.6
Spirit of New Zealand 23x15px New Zealand 1986 3 Barquentine 33.2 9.0
Stad Amsterdam 23x15px Netherlands 2000 3 Full rigged ship 62.4 10.5
Statsraad Lehmkuhl 23x15px Norway 1914 3 Barque 84.6 12.6
Star of India 23x15px United States 1863 3 Barque 62.5 10.7 X
Stavros S Niarchos 23x15px United Kingdom 2000 2 Brig 40.6 9.9
Sudarshini Template:Country data India 2011 3 Barque 54.0 8.5
Surprise (ex Rose) 23x15px United States 1970 3 Full rigged ship 54.6 9.8
Tarangini Template:Country data India 1997 3 Barque 54.0 8.5
Thor Heyerdahl 23x15px Germany 1930 3 Topsail Schooner 42.5 6.5
Unicorn 23x15px United Kingdom 1948 2 Brig 7.3
Varuna Template:Country data India 1981 3 Barque 54.0 8.5
Young America 23x15px United States 1975 2 Brigantine 7.2
Young Endeavour 23x15px Australia 1986 2 Brigantine 35 7.8
La Grace 23x15px Czech Republic 2010 2 Brig 32.8 6.06
Historical
Name Last Nationality Original
Delivery
Mast Rig End
Alexander von Humboldt 23x15px Germany 1906 3 Barque Sold 2011/ relocated to Caribbean, 2013 returned to Germany; currently docked
Bounty 23x15px United States 1960 3 Full rigged ship Sunk 2012
Concordia 23x15px Canada 1992 3 Barquentine Sunk 2010
Dunay 23x15px USSR 1928 3 Full rigged ship Burned 1963
Prince William (see PNS Rah Naward) 23x15px United Kingdom 2001 2 Brig Sold (2010); now a sail training ship of the Pakistan Navy

Class B

Traditionally rigged vessels (i.e. gaff rigged sloops, ketches, yawls and schooners) with an LOA of less than 40 metres and with a waterline length (LWL) of at least 9.14 metres.

Class C

Modern rigged vessels (i.e. Bermudan rigged sloops, ketches, yawls and schooners) with an LOA of less than 40 metres and with a waterline length (LWL) of at least 9.14 metres not carrying spinnaker-like sails.

Class D

Modern rigged vessels (i.e. Bermudan rigged sloops, ketches, yawls and schooners) with an LOA of less than 40 metres and with a waterline length (LWL) of at least 9.14 metres carrying spinnaker-like sails. There are also a variety of other rules and regulations for the crew, such as ages, and also for a rating rule. There are other sail festivals and races with their own standards, the STI is just one set of standards for their purposes.

Earlier description of classes

An older definition of class "A" by the STI was "all square-rigged vessels over 120' (36.6m) length overall (LOA). Fore and aft rigged vessels of 160' (48.8m) (LOA) and over". By LOA they meant length excluding bowsprit and aft spar.[4]

Class "B" was "all fore and aft rigged vessels between 100 to 160 feet in length, and all square rigged vessels under 120' (36.6m) (LOA)".

See also a list of class "A" ships with lengths including bowsprit.[5]

Lost tall ships

Tall ships are sometimes lost, such as by a storm at sea. Some examples of this include:

  • Bounty full-rig ship lost off the North Carolina coast as Hurricane Sandy approached in 2012.
  • Concordia was a triple mast Barquentine built in 1992, operated by Canada as a school ship. Lost at sea in 2010 in a squall.
  • Asgard II, an Irish national sail training ship, commissioned in 1982, was lost in 2008 off the French coast. The 2-masted brigantine is thought to have collided with a submerged object.
  • Fantome a former yacht built in 1927, then operating as a cruise ship was lost in Hurricane Mitch in 1998.[6]
  • Marques, built in 1917, it was lost in a 1984 Tall Ships Race.

Gallery

See also

References

Further reading

  • American Sail Training Association; Sail Tall Ships! (American Sail Training Association; 16th edition, 2005 ISBN 0-9636483-9-X)
  • Thad Koza; Tall Ships: A Fleet for the 21st Century (Tide-Mark Press; 3rd edition, 2002; ISBN 1-55949-739-4)

External links

pl:Żaglowiec