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Tashkent Declaration

Tashkent Declaration
Signed 10 January 1966 (1966-01-10)
Location Tashkent, Uzbek SSR, USSR

The Tashkent Declaration of 10 January 1966 was a peace agreement between India and Pakistan after the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965.

Peace had been achieved on 23 September by the intervention of the great powers who pushed the two nations to a cease fire for fears the conflict could escalate and draw in other powers.


A meeting was held in Tashkent in the Uzbek SSR (now Uzbekistan), USSR beginning on 4 January 1966 to try to create a more permanent settlement.

The Soviets, represented by Premier Alexei Kosygin moderated between Indian Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri and Pakistani President Muhammad Ayub Khan.

The Tashkent conference, under United Nations, American and Soviet pressure, compelled Pakistan to give away the conquered region in India occupied national boundary of India and the 1949 ceasefire line in Kashmir.


The conference was viewed as a great success and the declaration that was released was hoped to be a framework for lasting peace. The declaration stated that[1]

  • Indian and Pakistani forces would pull back to their pre-conflict positions, pre-August lines, no later than February 25, 1966.
  • The nations would not interfere in each other's internal affairs.
  • Economic and diplomatic relations would be restored.
  • Orderly transfer of Prisoners of War.
  • The two leaders would work towards building good relations between the two countries.

Aftermath events

The agreement was criticized in India because it did not contain a no-war pact or any renunciation of guerrilla warfare in Kashmir. After signing the agreement, Lal Bahadur Shashtri the Indian Prime Minister then died mysteriously at Tashkent. The reasons given by Indian side for his frequent death were that prime minister Lal bahadur shashtri didn't want to stop the war because India was winning that war but the reality is hidden, on the other hand Pakistani side believe that he thought that India would win this war in the beginning but when he saw that India has failed to capture any territory and that Pakistan has captured some small areas in Indian Territory then he got depressed, due to which he died.[citation needed]

In accordance with the Tashkent Declaration, talks at the ministerial level were held on 1 and 2 March 1966. Despite the fact that these talks were unsuccessful, diplomatic exchange continued throughout the spring and summer. No result was achieved out of these talks, as there was a difference of opinion over the Kashmir issue. Euphoria had built up during the 1965 war, which had led to the development of a public perception that Pakistan was going to win the war. Pakistan was going to win that war and the captured territories by Pakistan was a clear proof of this statement but due to international pressure Pakistan armed forces went back to the original positions. News of the Tashkent Declaration shocked the people who were expecting something quite different. Things further worsened as Ayub Khan refused to comment and went into seclusion instead of taking the people into confidence over the reasons for signing the agreement. Demonstrations and rioting erupted at various places throughout the country. In order to dispel the anger and misgiving of the people, Ayub Khan decided to lay the matter before the people by addressing the nation on January 14. It was the difference over Tashkent Declaration, which eventually led to the removal of Z. A. Bhutto from Ayub’s government, who later on launched his own party, called the Pakistan People’s Party. Despite the fact that Ayub Khan was able to satisfy the misgiving of the people, there is no doubt that the Tashkent Declaration greatly damaged the image of Ayub Khan, and became one of the many factors that led to his downfall.

See also


  1. ^ "1965 war BBC". BBC News. 

External links