Technology governance means the governance, i.e., the steering between the different sectors — state, business, and NGOs — of the development of technology. The concept is based on the notion of innovation and of techno-economic paradigm shifts according to the theories of Joseph A. Schumpeter, Christopher Freeman, Carlota Perez, etc.
The idea is that certain periods in economic development are dominated by a paradigm-leading technology that influences through finance mechanisms, organizational change, greater returns, etc. Also, the economic and social sphere to such an extent that an entire paradigm is coined by them. Currently, that paradigm-leading technology is Information and Communication Technology (ICT). According to Innovation Theory (and empirical findings as well), states, regions, or other communities do not automatically promote, or even go into, these key technologies, but rather need to be guided there, by active intervention, by the State sector, if it's in close cooperation and coordination with the other two, which is marked by the concept of governance already. Technology governance, (as a field of scholarly inquiry and academic instruction) is therefore about how this is theoretically and practically done, which institutions are optimal for such a venue, how the education of administrators have to look like if they are going to have the administrative capacity to deal with such matters, etc.
Technology governance is a public policy concept; it is not to be confused with inner-corporate arrangements of organisation (corporate governance) and IT arrangements, sometimes called "Information Technology Governance".