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Term of office

Term of office or term in office is the length of time a person (usually a politician) serves in a particular office.

United Kingdom

Prime Minister

In the United Kingdom, there have been term limits for the Prime Minister since the Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011 was introduced by Nick Clegg. The Prime Minister is appointed by the Monarch and remains in office as long as they can command the confidence of the House of Commons, which in practice means being the leader of the party with the most number of seats. The current incumbent, David Cameron has a working majority of 30 seats in the current House of Commons.

Parliament has to be elected every five years at a maximum though elections often take place more frequently, most usually every four years, such as 1979, 1983 and 1987, or 1997, 2001 and 2005.

The longest serving First Lord of the Treasury in Britain is Robert Walpole serving between 4 April 1721 – 11 February 1742. The longest serving leader to be called Prime Minister is Margaret Thatcher serving from 4 May 1979 to 28 November 1990, while the shortest serving Prime Minister is Sir Alec Douglas-Home, who was Prime Minister for 363 days, from 18 October 1963 to his defeat at the polls on 16 October 1964.

Devolved administrations

The devolved administrations in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland are a variation on the system of government used at Westminster.

The office of the leader of the devolved administrations has no numeric term limit imposed upon it. However, in the case of the Scottish Government and the Welsh Assembly Government there are fixed terms for which the legislatures can sit. This is imposed at four years. Elections may be held before this time but only if no administration can be formed, which has not happened yet.

United States

Federal

In the United States, the president of the United States is elected indirectly through the United States Electoral College to a four year term, with a term limit of two terms (totaling eight years) or a maximum of ten years if the president acted as president for two years or less in a term where another was elected as president, imposed by the Twenty-second Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1951.

U.S. Representatives serve two-year terms. U.S. Senators serve six-years terms.

Federal judges have different terms in office. Article I judges—such as those that sit on the United States bankruptcy courts, United States Tax Court, and United States Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces, and certain other federal courts and other forms of adjudicative bodies serve limited terms: The Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces for 15 years, bankruptcy courts for 14. However, the majority of the federal judiciary—Article III judges, such as those of the Supreme Court, courts of appeal, and federal district courts—serve for life.

State and territories

The terms of office for officials in state governments varies according to the provisions of state constitutions and state law.

The term for state governors is four years in all states but Vermont and New Hampshire; the Vermont and New Hampshire governors serve for two years.

The National Conference of State Legislatures reported in January 2007 that among state legislatures [2]:

Among territories of the United States:

Members of Council of the District of Columbia serves a four-year term.

Canada

Currently, as in any other elected public office holder position in Canada, there is no limit on the number of times a Prime Minister can run for office. There is a recent article in the Hill Times advocating term limits for such positions, including the PM one.[1]

Terms of office by country

Heads of state
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Upper houses
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Lower houses
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Legend
Not applicable Varies Until removed
<3 3 4 5 6 7 >7

Numbers in years unless stated otherwise. Note that some countries where fixed-term elections are uncommon, the legislature is almost always dissolved earlier than its expiry date. "Until removed from office" refers to offices that don't have fixed terms; in these cases, the officeholder(s) may serve indefinitely until death, abdication, resignation, retirement, or forcible removal from office (such as impeachment).

Country Head(s) of state Members of the upper house* Members of the lower (or sole) house
23x15px Afghanistan 5 3, 4 and 5 5
23x15px Albania 5 N/A 4
23x15px Algeria 5 N/A 5
23x15px Andorra Until removed from office (Bishop of Urgel); 5 (President of France) N/A 4
23x15px Angola 5 N/A 4
23x15px Antigua and Barbuda Until removed from office 5 5
23x15px Argentina 4 6 4
23x15px Armenia 5 N/A 5
23x15px Australia Until removed from office 6 3
23x15px Austria 6 4 to 6 5
23x15px Azerbaijan 5 N/A 5
23x15px Bahamas Until removed from office 5 5
23x15px Bahrain Until removed from office N/A 4
23x15px Bangladesh 5 N/A 5
23x15px Barbados Until removed from office 5 5
23x15px Belarus 5 4 4
23x15px Belgium Until removed from office 5 4
23x15px Benin 5 N/A 5
23x15px Bhutan Until removed from office 5 5
23x15px Bolivia 5 5 5
23x15px Bosnia and Herzegovina 4 4 4
23x15px Botswana 5 N/A 5
23x15px Brazil 4 8 4
23x15px Bulgaria 5 N/A 4
23x15px Burkina Faso 5 N/A 5
23x15px Burundi 5 5 5
23x15px Brunei Until removed from office N/A Until removed from office
23x15px Cambodia Until removed from office 6 5
23x15px Cameroon 7 N/A 5
23x15px Canada Until removed from office Until removed from office 5
23x15px Cape Verde 5 N/A 5
23x15px Central African Republic 6 N/A 5
23x15px Chad 5 N/A 4
23x15px Chile 4 8 4
23x15px China 5 N/A 5
23x15px Colombia 4 4 4
23x15px Congo 7 6 5
23x15px Comoros 7 N/A 5
23x15px Ivory Coast 5 N/A 5
23x15px Costa Rica 4 N/A 4
23x15px Croatia 5 N/A 4
23x15px Cuba 5 N/A 5
23x15px Cyprus 5 N/A 5
23x15px Czech Republic 5 6 4
23x15px Democratic Republic of the Congo 5 5 4
23x15px Denmark Until removed from office N/A 4
23x15px Djibouti 6 N/A 5
23x15px Dominica 5 N/A 5
23x15px Dominican Republic 4 4 4
23x15px Ecuador 4 N/A 4
23x15px Egypt 4 N/A 5
23x15px El Salvador 5 N/A 3
23x15px Equatorial Guinea 7 N/A 5
23x15px Estonia 5 N/A 4
23x15px Ethiopia 6 N/A 5
23x15px Fiji 5 5 5
23x15px Finland 6 N/A 4
23x15px France 5 6 5
23x15px Gabon 7 6 5
23x15px Gambia 5 N/A 5
23x15px Georgia 5 N/A 4
23x15px Germany 5 4 to 5 4
23x15px Ghana 4 N/A 4
23x15px Greece 5 N/A 4
23x15px Grenada Until removed from office 5 5
23x15px Guatemala 4 N/A 4
23x15px Guinea 7 N/A 5
23x15px Guinea-Bissau 5 N/A 5
23x15px Guyana 5 N/A 5
  1. REDIRECT Template:Country data Haiti || 5 || 6 || 4
  1. REDIRECT Template:Country data Honduras || 4 || style="background: #ececec; color: grey; vertical-align: middle; text-align: center; " class="table-na" | N/A || 4
23x15px Hungary 5 N/A 4
Template:Country data ISL 4 N/A 4
Template:Country data IND 5 6 5
  1. REDIRECT Template:Country data Indonesia || 5 || 5 || 5
Template:Country data IRN Until removed from office N/A 4
Template:Country data IRQ 4 N/A 4
23x15px Ireland 7 5 5
Template:Country data ISR 7 N/A 4
23x15px Italy 7 5 5
Template:Country data JAM Until removed from office 5 5
Template:Country data JPN Until removed from office 6 4
Template:Country data JOR Until removed from office 4 4
Template:Country data KAZ 7 6 5
Template:Country data KEN 5 5 5
Template:Country data KIR 4 N/A 4
  1. REDIRECT Template:Country data Kuwait || Until removed from office || style="background: #ececec; color: grey; vertical-align: middle; text-align: center; " class="table-na" | N/A || 4
Template:Country data KGZ 6 N/A 5
23x15px Laos 5 N/A 5
23x15px Latvia 4 N/A 4
23x15px Lebanon 4 N/A 4
23x15px Lesotho Until removed from office 5 5
23x15px Liberia 6 9 6
23x15px Liechtenstein Until removed from office N/A 4
23x15px Lithuania 5 N/A 4
23x15px Luxembourg Until removed from office N/A 5
23x15px Macedonia 5 N/A 4
23x15px Madagascar 5 4 4
23x15px Malawi 5 N/A 5
23x15px Malaysia 5 3 5
23x15px Maldives 5 N/A 5
23x15px Mali 5 N/A 5
23x15px Malta 5 N/A 5
23x15px Marshall Islands 4 N/A 4
23x15px Mauritania 5 N/A 5
23x15px Mauritius 5 N/A 5
23x15px Mexico 6 6 3
23x15px F.S. Micronesia 4 N/A 2, 4
23x15px Monaco Until removed from office N/A 5
23x15px Mongolia 4 N/A 4
23x15px Moldova 4 N/A 4
23x15px Montenegro 5 N/A 4
23x15px Morocco Until removed from office N/A 5
23x15px Mozambique 5 N/A 5
23x15px Myanmar 5 5 5
23x15px Namibia 5 N/A 5
23x15px Nauru 4 N/A 3
File:Flag of Nepal.svg   Nepal 5 N/A Until removed from office
23x15px Netherlands Until removed from office 4 4
23x15px New Zealand Until removed from office N/A 3
23x15px Nicaragua 5 N/A 5
23x15px Nigeria 5 N/A 5
23x15px Niger 4 4 4
Template:Country data PRK 5 N/A 5
23x15px Norway Until removed from office N/A 4
23x15px Oman Until removed from office 4 4
23x15px Pakistan 5 6 5
23x15px Palau 4 4 4
23x15px Palestine 4 N/A 4
23x15px Panama 5 N/A 5
23x15px Papua New Guinea Until removed from office N/A 5
23x15px Paraguay 5 5* 5
23x15px Peru 5 N/A 5
23x15px Philippines 6 6 3
23x15px Poland 5 4 4
23x15px Portugal 5 N/A 4
23x15px Qatar Until removed from office N/A N/A
23x15px Romania 5 4 4
23x15px Russia 6 N/A 5
23x15px Rwanda 7 N/A 5
23x15px Saint Kitts and Nevis Until removed from office N/A 5
23x15px Saint Lucia Until removed from office N/A 5
23x15px Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Until removed from office N/A 5
23x15px Samoa Until removed from office N/A 5
23x15px San Marino 0.5 (6 months) N/A 5
23x15px São Tomé and Príncipe 5 N/A 4
23x15px Senegal 5 5 5
23x15px Serbia 5 N/A 4
23x15px Seychelles 5 N/A 5
23x15px Sierra Leone 5 N/A 5
23x15px Singapore 6 N/A 5
23x15px Slovakia 5 N/A 4
23x15px Slovenia 5 5 4
23x15px Solomon Islands Until removed from office N/A 4
23x15px Somalia In transition N/A In transition
23x15px South Africa 5 5 5
  1. REDIRECT Template:Country data South Korea || 5 || style="background: #ececec; color: grey; vertical-align: middle; text-align: center; " class="table-na" | N/A || 4
23x15px South Sudan 5  ?  ?
23x15px Spain Until removed from office 4 4
23x15px Sri Lanka 6 N/A 6
23x15px Sudan 5 6 6
23x15px Suriname 5 N/A 5
23x15px Swaziland Until removed from office 5 5
23x15px Sweden Until removed from office N/A 4
23x16px  Switzerland 4 4 4
23x15px Syria 7 N/A 4
23x15px Taiwan 4 N/A 4
23x15px Tajikistan 7 5 5
23x15px Tanzania 5 N/A 5
23x15px Thailand Until removed from office 6 4
23x15px Timor-Leste 5 N/A 5
23x15px Togo 5 N/A 5
23x15px Tonga Until removed from office N/A 5
23x15px Trinidad and Tobago 5 5 5
23x15px Tunisia 5 6 5
23x15px Turkey 5 N/A 4
23x15px Turkmenistan 5 N/A 5
23x15px Tuvalu Until removed from office N/A 4
23x15px Uganda 5 N/A 5
23x15px Ukraine 5 N/A 4
23x15px United Arab Emirates Until removed from office Until removed from office 5
23x15px United Kingdom Until removed from office Until removed from office 5
23x15px United States 4 6 2
23x15px Uruguay 5 5 5
23x15px Uzbekistan 7 5 5
23x15px Vanuatu 5 N/A 4
23x16px  Vatican City Until removed from office N/A Until removed from office
23x15px Venezuela 6 N/A 5
23x15px Vietnam 5 N/A 5
23x15px Yemen 7 N/A 6
23x15px Zambia 5 N/A 5
23x15px Zimbabwe 5 5 5
*Excludes senators for life.

See also

References

  1. ^ [1]