Timeline of the Arab Spring
- 1 Overview diagram
- 2 2010
- 3 2011
- 4 2012
- 5 2013
- 6 2014
- 7 By country or region
- 8 See also
- 9 References
<timeline> DateFormat = dd/mm/yyyy ImageSize = width:1255 height:auto barincrement:30 PlotArea = left:95 right:0 top:4 bottom:110 Period = from:17/12/2010 till:15/08/2015 TimeAxis = orientation:horizontal Legend = orientation:vertical position:bottom columns:2 columnwidth:250 AlignBars = justify Colors =
id:grid_major value:gray(0.2) id:grid_minor value:gray(0.9)
ScaleMajor = increment:1 start:01/01/2011 ScaleMinor = unit:month increment:1 start:01/01/2011 gridcolor:grid_minor Colors =
id:rev value:lavender legend:Revolution id:war value:red legend:War id:mrc value:coral legend:Minor_conflict_or_insurgency id:sus value:blue legend:Sustained_protests_and_governmental_changes id:gov value:skyblue legend:Sporadic_protests_and_governmental_changes id:maj value:orange legend:Major_protests id:min value:yellow legend:Minor_protests id:_ value:white
bar:tn text:Tunisia link:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tunisia bar:dz text:Algeria bar:lb text:Lebanon bar:jo text:Jordan bar:om text:Oman bar:mr text:Mauritania bar:ye text:Yemen bar:sa text:Saudi Arabia bar:eg text:Egypt bar:sy text:Syria bar:dj text:Djibouti bar:ma text:Morocco bar:sd text:Sudan bar:pt text:Palestine bar:iq text:Iraq bar:bh text:Bahrain bar:ly text:Libya bar:kw text:Kuwait bar:eh text:Western Sahara bar:kz text:Iranian Khuzestan bar:il text:Borders of Israel
bar:tn from:18/12/2010 till:23/10/2011 color:rev bar:tn from:27/08/2013 till:26/01/2014 color:maj at:17/12/2010 shift:(0,5) text:" Mohd Bouazizi's self-immolation" mark:(line,rev) at:11/01/2011 shift:(0,-7)text:" Ben Ali leaves" mark:(line,_) at:08/06/2011 shift:(0,-7) text:" National elections postponed" mark:(line,_) at:23/10/2011 text:" First free elections since 1956 held." mark:(line,_) at:27/08/2013 text:" Anti-islamist gov protests" mark:(line,_) at:26/01/2014 text:"\n New constitution adopted" mark:(line,_) bar:dz from:28/12/2010 till:10/01/2012 color:maj at:24/02/2011 text:" State of Emergency Lifted" mark:(line,_) bar:lb from:12/01/2011 till:17/06/2011 color:maj bar:lb from:17/06/2011 till:end color:mrc at:13/06/2011 text:" New government formed" mark:(line,_) at:17/06/2011 text:"\n Conflict spills over from Syria" mark:(line,_) at:19/10/2012 text:"\n Al-Hassan assassination" mark:(line,_) at:25/06/2013 text:"\n Battle of Sidon" mark:(line,_) at:19/11/2013 text:" Iranian embassy bombing" mark:(line,_) at:27/12/2013 text:"\n Chatah Assassination" mark:(line,_) at:02/08/2014 text:" Battle of Arsal" mark:(line,_) at:10/01/2015 text:" Jabal Mohsen suicide attacks" mark:(line,_) bar:jo from:14/01/2011 till:18/11/2012 color:gov at:01/02/2011 text:" King Abdullah dismisses government" mark:(line,_) at:17/10/2011 text:"\n PM Al-Bakhit resigns" mark:(line,_) at:26/04/2012 text:" PM Al-Khasawneh resigns" mark:(line,_) bar:mr from:17/01/2011 till:25/02/2013 color:min at:17/01/2011 text:" Yacoub Ould Dahoud's self immolation" mark:(line,_) at:27/09/2011 text:"\n Census protests" mark:(line,_) bar:dj from:28/01/2011 till:11/03/2011 color:maj at:11/03/2011 text:" Protest leaders arrested" mark:(line,_) bar:sd from:30/01/2011 till:30/12/2011 color:min at:09/07/2011 text:" South Sudan seccedes" mark:(line,_) bar:sd from:26/03/2012 till:26/09/2012 color:war at:26/03/2012 text:" Border war begins" mark:(line,_) bar:sd from:26/09/2012 till:26/10/2013 color:maj at:05/12/2012 text:" Darfuri student \n killings" mark:(line,_) at:29/06/2013 text:" Bashir's protest" mark:(line,_) bar:om from:17/01/2011 till:01/06/2011 color:gov at:06/03/2011 text:"Sultan Qaboos dismisses ministers" mark:(line,_) bar:ye from:18/01/2011 till:27/02/2012 color:rev bar:ye from:18/08/2014 till:19/09/2014 color:rev bar:ye from:19/09/2014 till:06/02/2015 color:war bar:ye from:06/02/2015 till:24/03/2015 color:maj bar:ye from:25/03/2015 till:end color:war at:03/02/2011 text:" Day of Rage" mark:(line,_) at:04/06/2011 text:" Saleh leaves country" mark:(line,_) at:23/11/2011 text:" Saleh signs GCC deal" mark:(line,_) at:21/02/2012 text:"\n Saleh steps down" mark:(line,_) at:18/08/2014 text:" Houthi Protests" mark:(line,_) at:19/09/2014 text:"\n Coup d'état" mark:(line,_) at:06/02/2015 text:"\n Gov. dissolution" :(line,_) at:25/03/2015 text:"GCC Intervention" :(line,_) bar:sa from:21/01/2011 till:01/02/2014 color:min at:21/01/2011 text:" Unidentified man self immolates" mark:(line,_) at:11/03/2011 text:"\n Day of rage" mark:(line,_) at:22/09/2011 text:"\n Municipal elections, women granted right to vote" mark:(line,_) bar:eg from:25/01/2011 till:30/06/2012 color:rev bar:eg from:22/11/2012 till:30/07/2013 color:rev bar:eg from:30/07/2013 till:end color:mrc at:11/02/2011 text:" Mubarak resigns" mark:(line,_) at:19/03/2011 text:"\n Constitution referendum" mark:(line,_) at:25/01/2012 text:" State of emergency lifted" mark:(line,_) at:30/06/2012 text:"\n Morsi elected" mark:(line,_) at:22/11/2012 text:" Morsi grants himself\n unlimited powers" mark:(line,_) at:03/07/2013 text:" Coup, Sinai insurgency and islamist unrest" mark:(line,_) at:08/06/2014 text:" Sisi Elected" mark:(line,_) at:29/01/2015 text:" Wilayat Sinai attacks" mark:(line,_) bar:sy from:26/01/2011 till:04/06/2011 color:sus bar:sy from:04/06/2011 till:end color:war at:29/03/2011 text:" Cabinet resigns" mark:(line,_) at:29/07/2011 text:"\n FSA formed" mark:(line,_) at:15/07/2012 text:" UN declares it a Civil War" mark:(line,_) at:21/08/2013 text:" Ghouta Sarin attack" mark:(line,_) at:27/01/2015 text:" Liberation of Kobane" mark:(line,_) bar:ma from:30/01/2011 till:18/11/2012 color:gov at:09/03/2011 text:" King Mohammed VI promises reforms in televised speech" mark:(line,_) at:17/06/2011 text:"\n King's second speech" mark:(line,_) bar:iq from:10/02/2011 till:23/12/2011 color:maj bar:iq from:21/12/2012 till:05/06/2014 color:maj bar:iq from:05/06/2014 till:end color:war at:20/04/2011 text:" Soldiers pacify Kurdistan protests" mark:(line,_) at:02/12/2011 text:"\n Dohuk Riots" mark:(line,_) at:21/12/2012 text:" Al-Issawi arrested" mark:(line,_) at:30/12/2013 text:" Ramadi clashes" at:05/06/2014 text:" ISIS Invade" mark:(line,_) bar:pt from:03/02/2011 till:14/02/2012 color:gov bar:pt from:09/03/2012 till:14/03/2012 color:war bar:pt from:07/09/2012 till:02/10/2012 color:min bar:pt from:14/11/2012 till:21/11/2012 color:war bar:pt from:08/07/2014 till:26/08/2014 color:war at:14/02/2012 text:" Fayyad agrees to resign" mark:(line,_) at:09/03/2012 text:"\n Operation Returning Echo" mark:(line,_) at:14/11/2012 text:" Operation Pillar of Defense" mark:(line,_) at:08/07/2014 text:" Operation Protective Edge" mark:(line,_) bar:bh from:14/02/2011 till:17/12/2012 color:sus bar:bh from:18/12/2012 till:03/03/2014 color:maj at:26/02/2011 text:" Ministers Sacked" mark:(line,_) at:01/06/2011 text:"\n State of Emergency lifted" mark:(line,_) at:23/11/2011 text:" BICI report released" mark:(line,_) at:10/04/2012 text:" \n Eker bombing" mark:(line,_) at:30/10/2012 text:" Government bans all protests" mark:(line,_) at:14/08/2013 text:" Bahrain Tamarod" mark:(line,_) at:03/03/2014 text:" Daih bombing" mark:(line,_) bar:ly from:15/02/2011 till:22/10/2011 color:war bar:ly from:01/11/2011 till:15/05/2014 color:mrc bar:ly from:16/05/2014 till:end color:war at:17/02/2011 text:" Day of Rage" mark:(line,_) at:15/05/2011 text:" \nMisrata liberated" mark:(line,_) at:23/08/2011 text:" Tripoli falls" mark:(line,_) at:20/10/2011 text:" \n Death of Gaddafi, end of war" mark:(line,_) at:23/01/2012 text:" Bani Walid Uprising, low-level inter-factional conflict begins" mark:(line,_) at:08/06/2013 text:" Benghazi Conflict" mark:(line,_) at:16/05/2014 text:" Operation Dignity Offensive, second civil war" mark:(line,_) at:14/07/2014 text:" \n Battle of Tripoli Airport" mark:(line,_) bar:kw from:18/02/2011 till:25/07/2013 color:gov at:31/03/2011 text:" Cabinet resigns" mark:(line,_) at:16/11/2011 text:" National Assembly stormed by protesters" mark:(line,_) at:12/01/2012 text:" \nElection boycotts" mark:(line,_) at:17/04/2013 text:" Barrak conviction protests" mark:(line,_) bar:eh from:25/02/2011 till:21/05/2011 color:min bar:il from:15/05/2011 till:05/06/2011 color:maj bar:il from:09/03/2012 till:14/03/2012 color:war bar:il from:14/11/2012 till:21/11/2012 color:war bar:il from:08/07/2014 till:26/08/2014 color:war at:15/05/2011 text:" Nakba Day" mark:(line,_) at:05/06/2011 text:"\n Naksa Day" mark:(line,_) at:09/03/2012 text:" Operation Returning Echo" mark:(line,_) at:14/11/2012 text:" Operation Pillar of Defense" mark:(line,_) at:08/07/2014 text:" Operation Protective Edge" mark:(line,_) bar:kz from:15/04/2011 till:18/04/2011 color:maj
Protests arose in Oman, Yemen, Egypt, Syria, & Morocco. The government was overthrown in Tunisia on 14 January 2011. On 25 January 2011, thousands of protesters in Egypt gathered in Tahrir Square, in Cairo. They demanded the resignation of President Hosni Mubarak. On 15 March, protests began in Syria.
On February 11, the President of Egypt Hosni Mubarak resigned, and transferred his powers to the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces.
On 3 June, the President of Yemen Ali Abdullah Saleh was injured, in a failed assassination attempt. He temporarily made his Vice President, Abd Rabbuh Mansur Al-Hadi, the Acting President, of the nation.
Between 20 and 28 August, the Battle of Tripoli, occurred, in Libya. Rebel forces captured, and effectively gained control of, the capital city of Tripoli, therefore practically overthrowing the government of the dictator Muammar Gaddafi.
On 9 and 10 October, Coptic Christians in Egypt protested against the destruction of a church. The Army responded by attacking the protesters with tanks, killing many. On 20 October, Muammar Gaddafi was captured and killed, by rebels, in the city of Sirte. On 23 October, the National Transitional Council (NTC) officially declared an end to the 2011 Libyan Civil War.
On 19 November, Muammar Gaddafi's son, Saif al-Islam Gaddafi, was finally captured, after hiding in Nigeria. Between 19 and 21 November, many people once again protested in Cairo's Tahrir Square, demanding that the SCAF speed up the transition to a more civilian government. Clashes between protesters and soldiers then proceeded to happen, and many people were injured or killed.
On 20 December, many women protested in Egypt against human rights violations.
On 10 January, the President of Syria, Bashar al-Assad, gave a speech, in which he blamed the uprising on foreigners, and said that it would require the co-operation of all Syrians, in order to stop the rebels. On 24 January, the Egyptian Field Marshal and leader of the military, Mohamed Hussein Tantawi, announced that the decades-old state of emergency would be partially lifted, the following day.
Starting on 3 February, the Syrian government began an attack on the city of Homs. On 27 February, the President of Yemen, Ali Abdullah Saleh, officially resigned, and then transferred his powers to his Vice President, Abd Rabbuh Mansur Al-Hadi.
On 20 April, many people once again protested in Cairo's Tahrir Square, demanding a quicker transfer of power to a new President.
On 23 & 24 May, the Egyptian people voted in the first round of a presidential election. Ahmed Shafik and Mohammed Morsi were the two winners, of this election. On 25 May, the Syrian government carried out a massacre in Houla, killing a very large number of people.
On 2 June, the former Egyptian president Hosni Mubarak was sentenced to life in prison, by an Egyptian court. On 13 June, the former Tunisian president Zine El Abidine Ben Ali was sentenced to prison, by a Tunisian court. On 16 & 17 June, the Egyptian people voted in the 2nd round of a presidential run-off election, in which Mohammed Morsi received the most votes.
On June 24, 2012, Egypt's election commission announced that Muslim Brotherhood candidate Mohammed Morsi has won Egypt's presidential runoff. Morsi won by a narrow margin over Ahmed Shafiq, the last prime minister under deposed leader Hosni Mubarak. The commission said Morsi took 51.7 percent of the vote versus 48.3 for Shafiq.
On 12 July, the Syrian army carried out a massacre in the Village of Tremseh. Up to 225 people were killed. On 15 July, the International Committee of the Red Cross officially declared that the Syrian uprising was now a civil war. On 18 July, a bombing in Damascus killed many members of President Bashar al-Assad's inner circle, including his brother-in-law, Asef Shawkat. On 19 July, the former Vice President of Egypt, Omar Suleiman, died of a heart attack at a hospital in Cleveland, Ohio, in the United States.
Starting on 27 July, government forces and rebels began fighting a battle to capture Syria's largest city, Aleppo. The UN reports that over 200,000 Syrian refugees have now fled the country, ever since the fighting began.
September 11, 2012, Islamic militants attacked the American diplomatic mission at Benghazi, in Libya, killing U.S. Ambassador J. Christopher Stevens and Sean Smith, U.S. Foreign Service Information Management Officer.
On 9 October, the Free Syrian Army seized control of Maarat al-Numan, a strategic town in Idlib Governorate on the highway linking Damascus with Aleppo. By 18 October, the FSA had captured the suburb of Douma, the biggest suburb of Damascus.
On 22 November 2012 Egyptian protests started, with hundreds of thousands of protesters demonstrating against Egyptian president Mohammed Morsi, after he granted himself unlimited powers to “protect” the nation, and the power to legislate without judicial oversight or review of his acts.
On 25 January, massive protests against Mohamed Morsi developed all over Egypt on the second anniversary of the 2011 revolution, including in Tahrir Square, where thousands of protesters gathered. At least 6 civilians and 1 police officer were shot dead in the Egyptian city of Suez, while 456 others were injured nationwide.
On March 6, Syrian rebels captured Ar-Raqqah, the first major city to be under rebel control in the Syrian civil war. Meanwhile, the Syrian National Coalition was granted Syria's membership in the Arab League.
In the Ghouta chemical attack on 21 August 2013, several areas that were disputed or controlled by the Syrian opposition were struck by rockets containing the chemical agent sarin. Estimates of the death toll range from 'at least 281' to 1,729 fatalities.
- Egyptian government resigns, paving way for military chief Sisi to run for president.
By country or region
- Timeline of the 2011–present Egyptian civil unrest
- Timeline of the Bahraini uprising (2011–present)
- Timeline of the Syrian Civil War
- Timeline of the Yemeni Revolution
- Timeline of the Libyan Civil War
- Timeline of the 2011–13 Saudi Arabian protests
- "Rebel Group Says It Is Now Based in Syria, a Major Step". New York Times. 23 September 2012. Retrieved 23 September 2012.
- "Syrian rebels claim control of strategic town". Al Jazeera. 10 October 2012. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
- Di Giovanni, JANINE (18 October 2012). "Denial Is Slipping Away as War Arrives in Damascus". New York Times. Retrieved 20 October 2012.
- McCrumen, Stephanie; Hauslohner, Abigail (5 December 2012). "Egyptians take anti-Morsi protests to presidential palace". The Independent. Retrieved 5 December 2012.
- Hendawi, Hamza (28 November 2012). "Egyptian courts suspend work to protest Morsi decrees". Salon. Retrieved 8 December 2012.
- Dina Bishara (28 November 2012). "Egyptian Labor between Morsi and Mubarak". Mideast. Retrieved 8 December 2012.
- David D. Kirkpatrick (26 April 2012). "President Mohamed Morsi of Egypt Said to Prepare Martial Law Decree". Egypt: The New York Times. Retrieved 8 December 2012.
- "(CBS)". 25 January 2013. Retrieved 20 November 2014.
- (USA Today)
- (Reuters) (BBC)
- "Syria death toll probably at 70,000, U.N. human rights official says". CNN. 12 February 2013. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
- "(Fox News)". Fox News. Retrieved 20 November 2014.
- Washington Post
- "Associated Press". The Big Story. Retrieved 20 November 2014.
- George Mitchell, ed. (1978). Architecture of the Islamic World. Thames and Hudson. page 231.
- "Syria clashes destroy ancient Aleppo minaret". bbc.co.uk. 24 April 2013. Retrieved 24 April 2013.
- Minaret of historic Syrian mosque destroyed in Aleppo. The Guardian. 24 April 2013. Retrieved 25 April 2013.
- Saad, Hwaida; Gladstone, Rick (24 April 2013). "Storied Syrian Mosque’s Minaret Is Destroyed". The New York Times. Retrieved 24 April 2013.
- "Syrian army retakes key town of Qusair from rebels". BBC. Retrieved 5 June 2013.
- "France says 'at least 281' killed in Syria chemical attack". The Daily Star (Lebanon). Agence France-Presse. Retrieved 11 September 2013.
- "Bodies still being found after alleged Syria chemical attack: opposition". The Daily Star (Lebanon). 22 August 2013. Retrieved 24 August 2013.
- Syria conflict: Rebels evacuated from Old City of Homs (BBC). 7 May 2014