The Vilayet of Trebizond or Trabzon was a first-level administrative division (vilayet) in the north-eastern part of the Ottoman Empire and corresponding to the area along the eastern Black Sea coastline and the interior highland region of the Pontic Alps. The region was populated mainly by Greek Orthodox Christian Pontic Greeks in the western half and Laz-speaking Muslims in the eastern half, although throughout the period of Ottoman rule there was a history of conversion to Turkish Islam of many of the region's Pontic Greeks - with even Gulbahar Hatun, the mother of sultan Selim the Grim said to be of Pontic Greek origin.
At the beginning of the 20th century it reportedly had an area of Script error: No such module "convert"., while the preliminary results of the first Ottoman census of 1885 (published in 1908) gave the population as 1,047,700. The accuracy of the population figures ranges from "approximate" to "merely conjectural" depending on the region from which they were gathered.
- Trabzon Sanjak (Trabzon, Ordu, Giresun, Tirebolu, Görele, Vakfıkebir, Sürmene, Of, Akçaabat, Maçka)
- Gümüşhane Sanjak (Gümüşhane, Kelkit, Şiran, Torul)
- Lazistan Sanjak (Its center was Batumi at first until 1878, later Rize after 1878) (Rize, Pazar, Artvin)
- Canik Sanjak (Its center was Samsun after 1889) (Samsun, Bafra, Ünye, Fatsa, Çarşamba, Terme)
- Geographical Dictionary of the World, p. 1854, at Google Books
- "1914 Census Statistics" (PDF). Turkish General Staff. pp. 605–606. Retrieved 29 January 2011.
- Asia by A. H. Keane, page 459
- Gündüz Ali, Hemşinliler, Dil-Tarih-Kültür, Ardanuj Kültür Yardımlaşma Derneği, Yayın No: 2, Ankara, 2002, s. 61.
- Yurt Ansiklopedisi, Rize, s. 6365.
- Yüksel A., Doğu Karadeniz Araştırmaları, Kitabevi, İstanbul, 2005, s.
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