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Open Access Articles- Top Results for Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study

Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study

File:Math 2011.png
TIMSS 2011 8th grade average Mathematics scores
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TIMSS 2011 8th grade average Science scores

The Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) is a series of international assessments of the mathematics and science knowledge of students around the world. The participating students come from a diverse set of educational systems (countries or regional jurisdictions of countries) in terms of economic development, geographical location, and population size. In each of the participating educational systems, a minimum of 4,500 to 5,000 students are evaluated. Furthermore, for each student, contextual data on the learning conditions in mathematics and science are collected from the participating students, their teachers and their principals via separate questionnaires.[1]

TIMSS is one of the studies established by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) aimed at allowing educational systems to compare students' educational achievement and learn from the experiences of others in designing effective education policy. This study was first conducted in 1995, and has been performed every 4 years thereafter. In most of the cycles the study assesses 4th and 8th grade students. Therefore, some of the participating educational systems have trend data across assessments from 1995 to 2011.[2]

Another worldwide study that evaluates students’ math and science performance is the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) and is conducted by OECD.

History

TIMSS was first performed in 1995 as the largest international student assessment study of its time and evaluated students in 5 grades. In the second cycle (1999) only eighth-grade students were tested. In the next cycles (2003, 2007 and 2011) both 4th and 8th grade students were assessed. The latest cycle (2011) was performed in the same year as Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS), offering a comprehensive assessment of math, science and reading for the countries attended both studies. The sixth cycle will be conducted in 2015, the results will be ready in 2016 and the data set will be published in February 2017. TIMSS 2015 will include the data collected from parents for the first time.[3] Moreover, TIMSS Advanced will be conducted along with the TIMSS 2015. TIMSS Advanced, conducted in 1995 and 2008 as well, will assess final-year secondary students' achievement in advanced mathematics and physics. Policy-relevant data about curriculum emphasis, technology use, and teacher preparation and training will accompany TIMSS Advanced results.

Method, Data and Documentation

Along with the overall students’ achievement data, TIMSS comprehensive assessments include data on student performance in different mathematics and science domains (algebra, geometry, biology, chemistry, etc.) and on performance in the problem solving challenges in each of these contexts. In addition, TIMSS provides contextual data on crucial curricular, instructional, and resource-related factors that can impact the teaching and learning process. These data are gathered using student, teacher, school, and curriculum (National) questionnaires filled out respectively by students, teachers, school principals and National Research Coordinators.

According to TIMSS 2011 international result in Math “The TIMSS mathematics achievement scales were established in TIMSS 1995 based on the achievement distribution across all participating countries, treating each country equally. At each grade level, the scale center point of 500 was set to correspond to the mean of the overall achievement distribution, and 100 points on the scale was set to correspond to the standard deviation. Achievement data from subsequent TIMSS assessment cycles were linked to these scales so that increases or decreases in average achievement may be monitored across assessments. TIMSS uses the scale center point as a point of reference that remains constant from assessment to assessment”.[4]

Due to the fact that TIMSS studies are done in 4-year cycles, it opens the opportunity for participating counties to use the results between the fourth and the eighth grades to track the changes in achievement and certain background factors from an earlier study. For example, results of the fourth grade in TIMSS 1995 can be compared with the results of the eighth grade in TIMSS 1999 as fourth graders had become eighth graders in the next cycle of study.[5]

The collected information is presented in different formats. For example for TIMSS 2011, the results are presented in "TIMSS International Results in Science". , and "TIMSS International Results in Mathematics". . Also, "TIMSS Encyclopedia".  provides an overview of the national contexts for mathematics and science education in the participating countries. Besides, "Methods and procedures in TIMSS and PIRLS".  documents the development of the TIMSS and PIRLS assessments and questionnaires and describes the methods used. Moreover, "TIMSS user guide" (PDF).  describes the content and format of the data in the TIMSS 2011 International Database. The fully documented TIMSS 2011 international database can be downloaded from the "TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center’s website". .

The IEA DPC has developed a facilitating application for working with TIMSS and other IEA's large-scale assessments called the "IEA International Database (IDB) Analyzer". . This application assists in combining data files and helps with conducting some types of statistical analysis (such as computing means, percentages, percentiles, correlations, and estimating single level multiple linear regression). The application takes into account the complex sample structure of the databases in the computation of statistics and their standard errors. In addition it facilitates the estimating achievement scores and their standard errors .

Also for overviewing of the IEA study results and interpretation of information, IEA "Data Visualizer".  can come in handy.

Cycles

In TIMSS 1995 study, there were 41 educational systems in five grades (third, fourth, seventh, eighth, and the final year of secondary school).[6] In 1999, TIMSS only focused on the eighth grade in 38 educational systems. There was no study done for the fourth grade in that year. In TIMSS 2003, there were 26 educational systems in the study for the fourth grade and 48 for the eighth grade. In TIMSS 2007, 44 educational systems participated in the fourth grade and 57 educational systems in the eighth grade. TIMSS 2011 had 52 participating educational systems for the fourth grade and 45 for the eighth grade.[7]

In TIMSS 2011, nationally representative samples of students in 63 countries and 14 benchmarking entities participated in the fourth grade assessment, the eighth grade assessment, or both. And in each country, almost 4,000 students from 150–200 schools participated at each grade. In some of the participating educational systems where the assessment was too difficult for fourth and eighth grade students, the assessments were administered to 6th and 9th grade students.[8]

Cooperative Partners

TIMSS project depends on the collaboration of a large number of individuals and organizations around the world including the IEA Data Processing and Research Center, TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center at Boston College, the IEA Secretariat, Statistics Canada, and Educational Testing Service (ETS). In the United States, TIMSS is conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics of the U.S. Department of Education. Data for US students is further tracked for ethnic and racial groups. TIMSS is mainly funded by the participating countries. Also, US National Center for Education Statistics of the US Department of Education and the World Bank provide major support funding of the studies.[9]

Top 10 countries by subject and year

In TIMSS 1995 study, there were 25 participating countries for the fourth grade[10] and 41 counties for the eighth grade.[11] In 1999, TIMSS-R only focused on the eighth grade in 38 countries. There was no study done for the fourth grade in that year.[12] In TIMSS 2003, there were 25 participating countries in the study for the fourth grade and 46 countries for the eighth grade.[13][14] TIMSS 2007 had 36 participating counties for the fourth grade and 49 counties for the eighth grade.[15][16] TIMSS 2011 had 52 participating countries for the fourth grade and 45 countries for the eighth grade.[17][18]

Due to the fact that TIMSS studies are done in 4-year cycle, it opens the opportunity for participating counties to use the results between the fourth and the eight grades to track the changes in achievement and certain background factors from an earlier study. For example, results of the fourth grade in TIMSS 1995 are used to compare with the results of the eighth grade in TIMSS-R 1999 as fourth graders had become eighth graders in the next cycle of study.[5]

Maths

Fourth grade

TIMSS(1995) TIMSS2003 TIMSS2007 TIMSS2011
1. 23x15px Singapore 625
2. 23x15px Korea 611
3. Template:Country data Japan 597
4. Template:Country data Hong Kong 587
5. 23x15px Netherlands 577
6. 23x15px Czech Republic 567
7. 23x15px Austria 559
8. 23x15px Slovenia 552
9. 23x15px Ireland 550
10. 23x15px Hungary 548
1. 23x15px Singapore 594
2. Template:Country data Hong Kong 575
3. Template:Country data Japan 565
4. 23x15px Taiwan 564
5. 23x15px Flanders (Belgium) 551
6. 23x15px Netherlands 540
7. 23x15px Latvia 536
8. 23x15px Lithuania 534
9. 23x15px Russia 532
10. 23x15px England (and Wales) 531
1. Template:Country data Hong Kong 607
2. 23x15px Singapore 599
3. 23x15px Taiwan 576
4. Template:Country data Japan 568
5. Template:Country data Kazakhstan 549
6. 23x15px Russia 544
7. 23x15px England (and Wales) 541
8. 23x15px Latvia 537
9. 23x15px Netherlands 535
10. 23x15px Lithuania 530
1. 23x15px Singapore 606
2. Template:Country data South Korea 605
3. Template:Country data Hong Kong 602
4. 23x15px Taiwan 591
5. Template:Country data Japan 585
6. 23x15px Northern Ireland 562
7. 23x15px Flanders (Belgium) 549
8. 23x15px Finland 545
9. 23x15px England (and Wales) 542
10. 23x15px Russia 542

Eighth grade

TIMSS(1995) TIMSS-R(1999) TIMSS2003 TIMSS2007 TIMSS2011
1. 23x15px Singapore 643
2. Template:Country data South Korea 607
3. Template:Country data Japan 605
4. Template:Country data Hong Kong 588
5. 23x15px Flanders (Belgium) 565
6. 23x15px Czech Republic 564
7. 23x15px Slovakia 547
8. 23x16px  Switzerland 545
9. 23x15px Netherlands 541
10. 23x15px Slovenia 541
1. 23x15px Singapore 604
2. Template:Country data South Korea 587
3. 23x15px Taiwan 585
4. Template:Country data Hong Kong 582
5. Template:Country data Japan 579
6. 23x15px Flanders (Belgium) 558
7. 23x15px Netherlands 540
8. 23x15px Slovakia 534
9. 23x15px Hungary 532
10. 23x15px Canada 531
1. 23x15px Singapore 605
2. Template:Country data South Korea 589
3. Template:Country data Hong Kong 586
4. 23x15px Taiwan 585
5. Template:Country data Japan 570
6. 23x15px Flanders (Belgium) 537
7. 23x15px Netherlands 536
8. 23x15px Estonia 531
9. 23x15px Hungary 529
10. 23x15px Malaysia 508
1. 23x15px Taiwan 598
2. Template:Country data South Korea 597
3. 23x15px Singapore 593
4. Template:Country data Hong Kong 572
5. Template:Country data Japan 570
6. 23x15px Hungary 517
7. 23x15px England (and Wales) 513
8. 23x15px Russia 512
9. 23x15px United States 508
10. 23x15px Lithuania 506
1. Template:Country data South Korea 613
2. 23x15px Singapore 611
3. 23x15px Taiwan 609
4. Template:Country data Hong Kong 586
5. Template:Country data Japan 570
6. 23x15px Russia 539
7. Template:Country data Israel 516
8. 23x15px Finland 514
9. 23x15px United States 509
10. 23x15px England (and Wales) 507

Science

Fourth grade

TIMSS(1995) TIMSS2003 TIMSS2007 TIMSS2011
1. 23x15px Korea 597
2. Template:Country data Japan 574
3. 23x15px United States 565
4. 23x15px Austria 565
5. 23x15px Australia 562
6. 23x15px Netherlands 557
7. 23x15px Czech Republic 557
8. 23x15px England 551
9. 23x15px Canada 549
10. 23x15px Singapore 547
1. 23x15px Singapore 565
2. 23x15px Taiwan 551
3. Template:Country data Japan 543
4. Template:Country data Hong Kong 542
5. 23x15px England (and Wales) 540
6. 23x15px United States 536
7. 23x15px Latvia 532
8. 23x15px Hungary 530
9. 23x15px Russia 526
10. 23x15px Netherlands 525
1. 23x15px Singapore 587
2. 23x15px Taiwan 557
3. Template:Country data Hong Kong 554
4. Template:Country data Japan 548
5. 23x15px Russia 546
6. 23x15px Latvia 542
7. 23x15px England (and Wales) 542
8. 23x15px United States 539
9. 23x15px Hungary 536
10. 23x15px Italy 535
1. Template:Country data South Korea 587
2. 23x15px Singapore 583
3. 23x15px Finland 570
4. Template:Country data Japan 559
5. 23x15px Russia 552
6. 23x15px Taiwan 552
7. 23x15px United States 544
8. 23x15px Czech Republic 536
9. Template:Country data Hong Kong 535
10. 23x15px Hungary 534

Eighth grade

TIMSS(1995) TIMSS-R(1999) TIMSS2003 TIMSS2007 TIMSS2011
1. 23x15px Singapore 607
2. 23x15px Czech Republic 574
3. Template:Country data Japan 571
4. Template:Country data South Korea 565
5. 23x15px Bulgaria 565
6. 23x15px Netherlands 560
7. 23x15px Slovenia 560
8. 23x15px Australia 558
9. 23x15px Hungary 554
10. 23x15px England (and Wales) 552
1. 23x15px Taiwan 569
2. 23x15px Singapore 568
3. 23x15px Hungary 552
4. Template:Country data Japan 550
5. Template:Country data South Korea 549
6. 23x15px Netherlands 545
7. 23x15px Australia 540
8. 23x15px Czech Republic 539
9. 23x15px England (and Wales) 538
10. 23x15px Finland 535
1. 23x15px Singapore 578
2. 23x15px Taiwan 571
3. Template:Country data South Korea 558
4. Template:Country data Hong Kong 556
5. 23x15px Estonia 552
6. Template:Country data Japan 552
7. 23x15px Hungary 543
8. 23x15px Netherlands 536
9. 23x15px United States 527
10. 23x15px Australia 527
1. 23x15px Singapore 567
2. 23x15px Taiwan 561
3. Template:Country data Japan 554
4. Template:Country data South Korea 553
5. 23x15px England (and Wales) 542
6. 23x15px Hungary 539
7. 23x15px Czech Republic 539
8. 23x15px Slovenia 538
9. Template:Country data Hong Kong 530
10. 23x15px Russia 530
1. 23x15px Singapore 590
2. 23x15px Taiwan 564
3. Template:Country data South Korea 560
4. Template:Country data Japan 558
5. 23x15px Finland 552
6. 23x15px Slovenia 543
7. 23x15px Russia 542
8. Template:Country data Hong Kong 535
9. 23x15px England (and Wales) 533
10. 23x15px United States 525

All average country scores

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "TIMSS 2011 International Results in Mathematics" (PDF). TIMSS International Study Center. p. 29. Retrieved 3 May 2014. 
  2. ^ "TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center". Retrieved 3 May 2014. 
  3. ^ "International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement". Retrieved 3 May 2014. 
  4. ^ "TIMSS 2011 International Results in Mathematics" (PDF). TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center. p. 36. Retrieved 4 May 2013. 
  5. ^ a b "Pursuing Excellence: Comparisons of International Eighth-Grade Mathematics and Science Achievement from a U.S. Perspective, 1995 and 1999" (PDF). U.S. Department of Education. December 2000. p. 2. Retrieved 4 May 2013. 
  6. ^ "International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement". Retrieved 3 May 2014. 
  7. ^ "International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement". Retrieved 3 May 2014. 
  8. ^ "TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center". Retrieved 3 May 2014. 
  9. ^ "International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement". Retrieved 3 May 2014. 
  10. ^ "Highlights of Results - The Primary School Years". TIMSS 1995. TIMSS International Study Center. Retrieved 4 May 2013. 
  11. ^ "Highlights of Results - The Middle School Years". TIMSS 1995. TIMSS International Study Center. Retrieved 4 May 2013. 
  12. ^ "Third International Mathematics and Science Study Repeat – TIMSS 1999". TIMSS 1999. TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center. 
  13. ^ "TIMSS 2003 International Mathematics Report" (PDF). TIMSS & PIIRLS International Study Center. pp. 15,34–35. Retrieved 4 May 2013. 
  14. ^ "TIMSS 2003 International Science Report" (PDF). TIMSS & PIIRLS International Study Center. pp. 34,36–37. Retrieved 4 May 2013. 
  15. ^ "TIMSS 2007 International Mathematics Report" (PDF). TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center. pp. 31,34–35. Retrieved 4 May 2013. 
  16. ^ "TIMSS 2007 International Science Report" (PDF). TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center. pp. 31,34–35. Retrieved 4 May 2013. 
  17. ^ "TIMSS 2011 International Results in Mathematics" (PDF). TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center. pp. 36, 40, 42. Retrieved 4 May 2013. 
  18. ^ "TIMSS 2011 International Results in Science" (PDF). TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center. pp. 34, 38, 40. Retrieved 4 May 2013. 

External links