Республика Тыва (Russian)
Тыва Республика (Tyvan)</th></tr>
|— Republic —</th></tr>|
|Economic region</th>||East Siberian</tr>|
|Established</th>||October 13, 1944</tr>|
|Government (as of August 2010)</th></tr>|
|- Chairman of the Government</th>||Sholban Kara-ool</tr>|
|- Legislature</th>||Great Khural</tr>|
|Area (as of the 2002 Census)</tr>|
|- Total</th>||Script error: No such module "convert".</tr>|
|Population (2010 Census)</tr>|
|- Density</th>||Script error: No such module "convert".</tr>|
|Time zone(s)</th>||KRAT (UTC+07:00)</tr>|
|Official languages</th>||Russian; Tyvan</tr>|
|Years||Average population (x 1000)||Live births||Deaths||Natural change||Crude birth rate (per 1000)||Crude death rate (per 1000)||Natural change (per 1000)||Fertility rates|
- Average life expectancy: Tuva: 56.5 (average male and female, UNDP data); Russia: (UN data) Male 59 (world rank 166); Female 73 (127)
According to the 2010 Census, Tyvans make up 82.0% of the republic's population. Other groups include Russians (16.3%), and a host of smaller groups, each accounting for less than 0.5% of the total population.
|1959 census||1970 census||1979 census||1989 census||2002 census||2010 census1|
|1 8,689 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.|
As can be seen above, during the period 1959–2010 there has been more than a doubling of ethnic Tyvans. The Russian population growth slowed by the 1980s and decreased by 50% since 1989.
Official languages are Tyvan (Turkic) and Russian (Slavic). Outside Kyzyl, settlements have few if any Russian inhabitants and in general Tyvans use their original language as their first language. However, there is a small population of Old believers in the republic scattered in some of the most isolated areas. Before the Soviet rule, there were a number of large ethnic Russian old believer villages, but as the atheist ideology crept in, the believers moved deeper and deeper into the Taiga in order to avoid contact with outsiders. Major Old believer villages are Erzhei, Uzhep, Unzhei, Zhivei and Bolee Malkiye (all in the Kaa-Khemsky District). Smaller ultra-Orthodox settlements are found further upstream.
Ethnic Russians make up 38.68% of the population (as of 2002 Census) in Kaa-Khemsky District, one of the most remote regions in Tyva. The population is mostly Old believers. Russians account for 34.12% of the population in Piy-Khemsky and 19.80% in Todzhinsky. In Kyzyl, they account for 37.02%.
Tyvans are closely related ethnically and linguistically to the Khakas to their north and the Altai to their west, but closer culturally to the Mongolians to their south and the related Buryats to their east, with whom they share their Tibetan Buddhism.
Two religions are widespread among the people of Tyva: Tibetan Buddhism and shamanism. Tibetan Buddhism's present-day spiritual leader is Tenzin Gyatso, the fourteenth Dalai Lama. In September 1992, the fourteenth Dalai Lama visited Tyva for three days. On September 20, he blessed and consecrated the new yellow-blue-white flag of Tuva, which had just been officially adopted three days previously.
During the 16th and 17th centuries, Tibetan Buddhism gained popularity in Tyva. An increasing number of new and restored temples are coming into use, as well as novices being trained as monks and lamas. Religious practice declined under the restrictive policies of the Soviet period but is now flourishing. Shamanism is being revived as well, also in organized Tengrian forms.
As of a 2012 official survey 61.8% of the population of Tyva adheres to Buddhism, 8% to Tengrism or Tyvan shamanism, 1.5% to the Russian Orthodox Church, Starovery or other forms of Christianity, 1% to Protestantism. In addition, 7.7% follows other religion or did not give an answer to the survey, 8% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious" and 12% to be atheist.
The head of the government in Tyva is the Chairman of the Government, who is elected for a four-year term. The first Chairman of the Government was Sherig-ool Oorzhak. As of 2007, the Chairman of the Government was Sholban Kara-ool. Tyva's legislature, the Great Khural, has 162 seats; each deputy is elected to serve a four-year term.
The present flag of Tyva — yellow for prosperity, blue for courage and strength, white for purity — was adopted on September 17, 1992. See above under Religion.
The republic's Constitution was adopted on October 23, 1993.
On April 3, 2007, Russian president Vladimir Putin nominated Sholban Kara-ool, 40, a former champion wrestler, as the Chairman of the Government of Tuva. Sholban's candidacy was approved by the Khural on April 9, 2007.
Tyva has a developing mining industry (coal, cobalt, gold, and more). Food processing, timber, and metal working industries are also well-developed. Most of the industrial production is concentrated in the capital Kyzyl and in Ak-Dovurak. According to the HDI, the republic of Tyva is the least developed region in Russia.
Tyva is a region with a unique history, culture and nature. All native zones of the Earth except savanna (even rain forest, see Southern Siberian rainforest) are featured in Tyva. Tyva is well known by its spa-tourism. There are more than 100 mineral springs in Tyva. The biggest of them are warm mineral springs Ush-Beldir and Tarys, the temperature of water 52-85 °C. Cold mineral springs and salty lakes are popular among tourists and population by their medicinal qualities. Geographical location of Tyva between east-siberian taiga and central-Asian landscape predetermined wealth of flora and fauna. More than 90% of the territory is chase. Rare animals such as sable, lynx, wolverine, weasel, maral, Siberian ibex, and musk deer are only the part of Tyvan fauna.
Historical objects and ethnic culture are the top of interest: traditional habitat – yurta, national kitchen and handicraft, tuvan throat singing khomeii, national kinds of sport – wrestling competition Khuresh and horse riding. Annual festival "Ustuu-Khuree" and Naadym are the top of interest for tourists.
Tyva has as yet no railway — although famous postage stamps in the 1930s, designed in Moscow during the time of Tyvan independence, mistakenly depict locomotives as demonstrating Soviet-inspired progress there. There is however a plan for construction of a railway line from the capital Kyzyl to Kuragino in Krasnoyarsk Krai. The railway will run for Script error: No such module "convert".. The main purpose for building the railway is to transport coal from coal mines in Kyzyl.
There are three roads leading to Tyva,a paved highway over the passes between Khakassia (Abakan) and Kyzyl and a dirt track over the mountains from Khakassia to Ak Dovurak,: both of these can be cut off by snowfall and avalanches from time to time in winter. The third road goes south, turning into a track before entering Mongolia. The only external bus and taxi services are between Khakassia (Abakan) and Kyzyl.
Kyzyl has both large public buses and private minibus services.Both buses and taxis also connect Kyzyl with the larger settlements.
Passenger ferries ply the Greater Yenisei (Bii-Khem) between Kyzyl and Toora-Khem in Todzha (Upper Tyva) when there is neither too little nor too much water over the rapids.
There is a small airfield in Kyzyl with intermittent flights.
Sainkho Namtchylak is one of the few singers from Tyva to have an international following. She is also very involved with Tyvan culture. Every year she invites Western musicians to perform in Kyzyl and to learn about the country, its culture and its music. In recent years Kongar-ool Ondar has become well known in the West as well, in large part because of the film Genghis Blues featuring Ondar and American blues singer Paul Pena. Huun-Huur-Tu has been one of the most well known Tyvan music ensembles since the late 1990s, while the Alash ensemble came to prominence in the early 2000s.
The Tyvan language is Turkic, although with many loan-words from Mongolian. It is currently written with a modified Cyrillic alphabet, previously used Turkic runes, later Mongolian, then Latin alphabets. Then, Tyva was administered as part of Outer Mongolia, and the language difference was a determining factor in Tyva seeking full independence from Mongolia following the collapse of the Qing Dynasty.
The Tuvan people have a rich tradition of orally transmitted folklore, including many genres, ranging from very brief riddles and aphorisms, to tongue twisters, magical tales, hero tales, scary stories, and epics that would take many hours to recite. A few examples and excerpts of the epic genres, such as Boktu-Kirish, Bora-Sheelei have been published. This art form is now endangered as the traditional tale-tellers grow old and are not replaced by younger practitioners.
The most important facilities of higher education include the Tuvan State University and the Tyvan Institute of Humanities, both located in the capital Kyzyl.
- In the 1920s and 1930s, postage stamps from Tuva were issued. Many philatelists, including the physicist Richard Feynman, have been fascinated with Tuva because of these stamps. The stamps were issued mainly during the brief period of Tuvan independence, and were not accepted by serious collectors until recently as they were thought to be produced in Moscow and not to represent a genuine postal service. The stamps have been partly rehabilitated in philatelic circles recently. Feynman's efforts to reach Tuva are chronicled in the book Tuva or Bust! and the video The Quest For Tannu Tuva: Richard Feynman – The Last Journey of a Genius (1988) which can be viewed online on YouTube. Project Tuva was named in honor of his efforts.
- Tuva was featured prominently in the award-winning documentary Genghis Blues.
- United Nations Human Development Index: Russian Federation – Republic of Tyva, rank: 79/79 (the lowest).
- Tuvan stamps are mentioned in a line of Gregory Corso's poem Marriage.
- Tuvan Sergey Shoygu, Russia's Minister for Emergency Situations since 1994, is Russia's longest-serving minister, and a leader of Russia's governing party 'Unity'.
- Tuvans make wishes each morning, sprinkling milk on the ground, to the north, south, east and west, with a special wooden spoon with nine small hollows for the various milk products made.
- According to Ilya Zakharov of Moscow's Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, genetic evidence suggests that the modern Tuvan people are the closest genetic relatives to the native peoples of North and South America.
- Some Tuvans, even near Kyzyl, still live in traditional yurts, round, demountable and portable dwellings with sectional lath trellis walls, decorated pole roofs and covered with white felt and canvas, with colourful cloth lining. There is a central smoke-hole above the hearth or stove. It is used to tell the time as the sunlight moves around inside the yurt. The interior is arranged with the man's side to the left, the woman's to the right of the door facing East, with the altar cupboard facing that.
- Tuvans, as traditional nomads, knew no fixed national borders, which has led to small numbers being in areas outside the present Republic's boundaries, including as follows.
- China – Xinjiang: 'Tuwa' by Lake Kanas, Altay Prefecture.
- Russia – Irkutsk Oblast: 'Tofa' adjacent to north-east Tyva; Buryatia: 'Soyot' of the Upper Oka river.
- Mongolia – northern: 'Tsaatan'; north-western: 'Dukha/Duva'; western: 'Tsengel'.
- Sayan Mountains in Tuva was featured in Bear Grylls' Man vs Wild popular adventure TV show.
- Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
- Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
- Official website of the Government of the Tyva Republic. Sholban Valeryevich Kara-ool Invalid language code.
- Constitution, Article 10.3
- Constitution, Article 10.2
- Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2011-11-01.
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- The density value was calculated by dividing the population reported by the 2010 Census by the area shown in the "Area" field. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox is not necessarily reported for the same year as the population.
- Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №248-ФЗ от 21 июля 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #248-FZ of July 21, 2014 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
- Official on the whole territory of Russia according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
- Constitution, Article 5.1
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- Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014.
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- "Philately's Ugliest Ducklings: Rehabilitating the 1934–36 Issues of Tannu Tuva" at the Wayback Machine (archived July 14, 2011) by James Negus at TTCS. Originally published in The Philatelic Journal, July–September 1960.
- "Central Asian Origins of the Ancestor of First Americans", by I. Zakharov Invalid language code.
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- 6 мая 2001 г. «Конституция Республики Тыва», в ред. Конституционного закона №748 ВХ-2 от 7 июля 2008 г. (May 6, 2001 Constitution of the Tyva Republic, as amended by the Constitutional Law #748 VKh-2 of July 7, 2008. ).
|40x40px||Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tuva.|
- Invalid language code. Official website of Tuva
- Photos from Tuva by Stanislav Krupar
- Research among the Tyvans of South Siberia
- World Statesmen – Russia
- Singing Stones – The Republic of Tuva
- Invalid language code. Website of Tuva
- Invalid language code. Friends of Tuva website
- Invalid language code. Invalid language code. Friends of Tuva, Japan
- Invalid language code. Some Tuvan stamps issued in 1920s/1930s
- Invalid language code. Genghis Blues, official movie site
- Invalid language code. Animated slideshow presentations of Tuva
- Invalid language code. Invalid language code. Invalid language code. Invalid language code.More complete collection of Tuva Stamps (1926–1943)
- Invalid language code. TyvaWiki:Main Page
- Invalid language code. The Tuva Trader; Tuva and Richard Feynman media, products and information
- Invalid language code. Buga-shadara A traditional Tuvan boardgame
- Audio of the Tuvan national anthem recorded by the Tuvan National Orchestra. The orchestral arrangement was composed by Ayana Samiyaevna Mongush.
- Invalid language code. Invalid language code. Map of Republic of Tuva (in Tuvan) Slavic-Eurasian Research Center, Hokkaido University