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Open Access Articles- Top Results for United States House of Representatives elections, 1866

United States House of Representatives elections, 1866

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Schuyler Colfax
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Schuyler Colfax
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United States House of Representatives elections, 1866
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This page is a soft redirect. All 224[Note 2] seats to the United States House of Representatives
113 seats were needed for a majority
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Elections to the United States House of Representatives were held in 1866 to elect Representatives to the 40th United States Congress.

The elections occurred just one year after the American Civil War, in which the Union defeated the Confederacy, ended.

The 1866 elections were a decisive event in the early Reconstruction era, in which President Andrew Johnson faced off against the Radical Republicans in a bitter dispute over whether Reconstruction should be lenient or harsh toward the vanquished South.

Most of the congressmen from the former Confederate states were either prevented from leaving the state or were arrested on the way to the capital. A Congress consisting of mostly Radical Republicans sat early in the Capitol and aside from the delegation from Tennessee who were allowed in, the few Southern Congressmen who arrived were not seated.

Background

Johnson, a War Democrat, had been elected Vice President in the 1864 presidential election as the running mate of Abraham Lincoln, a Republican. (The Republicans had chosen not to re-nominate Hannibal Hamlin for a second term as Vice President).

Lincoln and Johnson ran together under the banner of the National Union Party, which brought together Republicans (with the exception of some hard-line abolitionist Radical Republicans who backed John C. Frémont, who eventually dropped out of the race after brokering a deal with Lincoln) and the War Democrats (the minority of Democrats who backed Lincoln's prosecution of the war, as opposed to the Peace Democrats, or Copperheads, who favored a negotiated settlement with the Confederates).

After the assassination of Lincoln, Johnson became President. He immediately became embroiled in a dispute with the Radical Republicans over the conditions of Reconstruction; Johnson favored a lenient Reconstruction, while Radical Republicans wanted to continue the military occupation of the South and force Southern states to give freedmen (the newly freed slaves) civil rights (and the right to vote).

Campaign and results

Johnson stumped the country in a public speaking tour known as the Swing Around the Circle; he generally supported Democrats but his speeches were poorly received.

The Republicans won in a landslide, capturing enough seats to override Johnson's vetoes. Only the border states of Delaware, Maryland, and Kentucky voted for Democrats. Recently Reconstructed Tennessee sent a Republican delegation. The other 10 ex-Confederate states did not vote. As a percentage of the total number of seats available in the House of Representatives, the Republican majority attained in the election of 1866 has never been exceeded in any subsequent Congress. The Democratic Party was able to achieve similar success only in the political environment of the era of the Great Depression in the 1930s.

Election summaries

Seven former Confederate States were readmitted during this Congress, filling 32 vacancies. There remained 19 vacancies at the end of the 40th Congress, 17 in the three states that had not yet been readmitted, and one vacancy each in Georgia (GA-06) and Kentucky (KY-02) that lasted the entire 40th Congress.[1] (Note: Georgia was readmitted to the House for the 40th Congress, but not to the Senate.)

175 2 47
Republican C Democratic
State Type Date Total
seats
Republican Democratic Others
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Delaware At-large November 6, 1866
(Election Day)[Note 4]
1 0 11px 1 11px 0 11px
Illinois District +
1 at-large
14 11 11px 3 11px 0 11px
Kansas At-large 1 1 11px 0 11px 0 11px
Maryland District 5 1 11px 1 3 11px 1 1[Note 5] 11px 2[Note 6]
Massachusetts District 10 10 11px 0 11px 0 11px
Michigan District 6 6 11px 0 11px 0 11px
Minnesota District 2 2 11px 0 11px 0 11px
Missouri District 9 8 11px 1 11px 0 11px
Nevada At-large 1 1 11px 0 11px 0 11px
New Jersey District 5 3 11px 1 2 11px 1 0 11px
New York District 31 21[Note 3] 11px 1 10 11px 1 0 11px
Wisconsin District 6 5 11px 1 11px 0 11px
Indiana District October 9, 1866 11 8 11px 1 3 11px 1 0 11px
Iowa District October 9, 1866 6 6 11px 0 11px 0 11px
Maine District September 10, 1866 5 5 11px 0 11px 0 11px
Nebraska At-large October 9, 1866 1 1 11px 0 11px 0 11px
Ohio District October 9, 1866 19 17 11px 2 11px 0 11px
Oregon At-large June 4, 1866 1 1 11px 0 11px 0 11px
Pennsylvania District October 9, 1866 24 18 11px 3 6 11px 3 0 11px
Vermont District September 4, 1866 3 3 11px 0 11px 0 11px
West Virginia District October 25, 1866 3 3 11px 3 0 11px 0 11px 3[Note 6]
1867 elections
California District September 6, 1867 3 1 11px 2 2 11px 2 0 11px
Connecticut District April 1, 1867 4 1 11px 3 3 11px 3 0 11px
Kentucky District May 4, 1867 9[Note 7] 1 11px 1 7 11px 2 0 11px 4[Note 8]
New Hampshire District March 12, 1867 3 3 11px 0 11px 0 11px
Rhode Island District April 3, 1867 2 2 11px 0 11px 0 11px
Tennessee District August 3, 1867 8 8 11px 8 0 11px 0 11px 8[Note 9]
Readmitted States
Alabama District February 4–8, 1868 6 6 11px 6 0 11px 0 11px
Arkansas District March 13, 1868 3 3 11px 3 0 11px 0 11px
Florida At-large May 5, 1868 1 1 11px 1 0 11px 0 11px
Georgia District April 23, 1868 7[Note 7] 4 11px 4 2 11px 2 0 11px
Louisiana District April 8, 1868 5 4 11px 4 1 11px 1 0 11px
North Carolina District April 23, 1868 7 6 11px 6 0 11px 1[Note 10] 11px 1
South Carolina District April 14–16, 1868 4 4 11px 4 0 11px 0 11px
Secessionist States not yet readmitted
Mississippi District 5
Texas District October 15, 1866[Note 11] 4
Virginia District 8
Total[Note 2] 224
19 vacancies[Note 12]
175[Note 3]
77.4%
11px 38 47
20.8%
11px 9 2[Note 13]
0.9%
11px 16[Note 14]
House seats
Republican
  
77.43%
Democratic
  
20.80%
Conservative
  
0.88%

The party affiliations of the 4 Representatives elected in Texas' rejected elections are unknown.

List of races

California

District Incumbent Party Elected Result Candidates
[[California's 1st congressional district#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.California 1]]
Donald C. McRuer Republican 1864 Retired
Democratic gain
Samuel Beach Axtell (D) 57.3%
Timothy G. Phelps (R) 42.7%
[[California's 2nd congressional district#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.California 2]]
William Higby Republican 1862 Re-elected William Higby (R) 52.1%
James W. Coffroth (D) 47.9%
[[California's 3rd congressional district#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.California 3]]
John Bidwell Republican 1864 Retired
Democratic gain
James A. Johnson (D) 50.6%
Chancellor Hartson (R) 49.4%

Ohio

Democrats gained one seat this election in Ohio. It was later contested and awarded to the Republican for a net gain of zero.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates[2]
[[Ohio's 1st congressional district#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.Ohio 1]]
Benjamin Eggleston Republican 1864 Re-elected
[[Ohio's 2nd congressional district#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.Ohio 2]]
Rutherford B. Hayes Republican 1864 Re-elected
[[Ohio's 3rd congressional district#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.Ohio 3]]
Robert C. Schenck Republican 1862 Re-elected
[[Ohio's 4th congressional district#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.Ohio 4]]
William Lawrence Republican 1864 Re-elected
[[Ohio's 5th congressional district#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.Ohio 5]]
Francis C. Le Blond Democratic 1862 Retired
Democratic hold
[[Ohio's 6th congressional district#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.Ohio 6]]
Reader W. Clarke Republican 1864 Re-elected
[[Ohio's 7th congressional district#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.Ohio 7]]
Samuel Shellabarger Republican 1864 Re-elected
[[Ohio's 8th congressional district#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.Ohio 8]]
James Randolph Hubbell Republican 1864 Retired
Republican hold
[[Ohio's 9th congressional district#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.Ohio 9]]
Ralph P. Buckland Republican 1864 Re-elected
[[Ohio's 10th congressional district#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.Ohio 10]]
James M. Ashley Republican 1862 Re-elected
[[Ohio's 11th congressional district#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.Ohio 11]]
Hezekiah S. Bundy Republican 1864 Retired
Republican hold
[[Ohio's 12th congressional district#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.Ohio 12]]
William E. Finck Democratic 1862 Retired
Democratic hold
[[Ohio's 13th congressional district#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.Ohio 13]]
Columbus Delano Republican 1864 Lost Re-election
Democratic gain[Note 15]
[[Ohio's 14th congressional district#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.Ohio 14]]
Martin Welker Republican 1864 Re-elected
[[Ohio's 15th congressional district#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.Ohio 15]]
Tobias A. Plants Republican 1864 Re-elected
[[Ohio's 16th congressional district#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.Ohio 16]]
John Bingham Republican 1864 Re-elected
[[Ohio's 17th congressional district#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.Ohio 17]]
Ephraim R. Eckley Republican 1862 Re-elected
[[Ohio's 18th congressional district#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.Ohio 18]]
Rufus P. Spalding Republican 1862 Re-elected
[[Ohio's 19th congressional district#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.Ohio 19]]
James A. Garfield Republican 1862 Re-elected

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Excludes states readmitted after the start of Congress.
  2. ^ a b Including late elections.
  3. ^ a b c Includes 1 Independent Republican, Lewis Selye, elected to NY-28, and 1 Conservative Republican, Thomas E. Stewart, elected to NY-06.
  4. ^ In 1845, Congress passed a law providing for a uniform date for choosing presidential electors (see: Statutes at Large, 28th Congress, 2nd Session, p. 721). Congressional elections were unaffected by this law, but the date was gradually adopted by the states for Congressional elections as well.
  5. ^ One Conservative member, Charles E. Phelps, elected to MD-03.
  6. ^ a b Previous election had 3 Unionists.
  7. ^ a b One seat remained vacant throughout the 40th Congress.
  8. ^ Previous election had 4 Unionists.
  9. ^ 8 Unionists in previous election.
  10. ^ One Conservative member, Nathaniel Boyden, elected to NC-06.
  11. ^ Rejected.
  12. ^ After readmission of 7 States.
  13. ^ Both Conservatives.
  14. ^ Previous election had 18 Unionists.
  15. ^ a b c Morgan (R) was initially seated (and thus is counted towards the party totals at this article), but the election was contested and the seat was subsequently awarded to Delano (D) during the 40th Congress' second session.

References

  1. ^ Martis, pp. 120–121; Dubin, p. 209.
  2. ^ Smith, Joseph P, ed. (1898). History of the Republican Party in Ohio I. Chicago: the Lewis Publishing Company. pp. 228, 229. 

Bibliography

External links