Open Access Articles- Top Results for Visakhapatnam

International Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences
A Review on Mugil Cephalus Biology and its Occurrence in Visakhapatnam Coast
International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology
International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology
Numerical Study of Diurnal Circulations of Tropical Coastal Site Visakhapatnam Using the ARW MesoScale Model
International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology
A Study of Air Pollutant Concentration over Visakhapatnam and Vijayawada Cities - A Case Study


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Vizag, Waltair
Top to bottom, left to right: A view of Visakhapatnam and the Bay of Bengal from Kailasagiri Park, Simhachalam Temple, King George Hospital, Visakhapatnam Port, the Kursura Submarine Museum, the Visakhapatnam Steel Plant, and Ramakrishna Mission Beach
Nickname(s): The City of Destiny,
The Jewel of the East Coast
Goa of the East

Coordinates: Template:IndAbbr 17°41′18″N 83°13′07″E / 17.68833°N 83.21861°E / 17.68833; 83.21861Coordinates: Template:IndAbbr 17°41′18″N 83°13′07″E / 17.68833°N 83.21861°E / 17.68833; 83.21861{{#coordinates:17|41|18|N|83|13|07|E|type:city(1730320)_region:IN-Template:IndAbbr |primary |name=

Country India
State Andhra Pradesh
Region Coastal Andhra
District Visakhapatnam
Named for Viśakha
 • Body Greater Visakhapatnam Municipal Corporation (GVMC)
 • Municipal commissioner Praveen Kumar[1]
 • Commissioner of Police Amit Garg[2]
 • Metropolis 681.96 km2 (263.31 sq mi)
 • Metro 5,573 km2 (2,152 sq mi)
Elevation[4] 54 m (177 ft)
Population (2011)[5]
 • Metropolis 1,730,320
 • Rank 17th
 • Density 2,537.28/km2 (6,571.5/sq mi)
 • Metro[6] 2,091,811
Demonym Vizagite
 • Official Telugu
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 530 0XX, 531 1XX
Telephone code +91-891-XXX XXXX
Vehicle registration AP–31,32,33,34
Website Greater Visakhapatnam Municipal Corporation

Visakhapatnam (nicknamed Vizag) is the largest city in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. Visakhapatnam is located Script error: No such module "convert". north east of the proposed state capital of Amaravati and Script error: No such module "convert". of Hyderabad, the common capital of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana. It is the administrative headquarters of Visakhapatnam district.[6] As of 2011, the population of the city was recorded as 1,730,320, making it 17th largest city in India,[7] while its metropolitan area had a population of 2,091,811.[5] Nestled between the Eastern Ghats mountain range and the Bay of Bengal, the city occupies an area of Script error: No such module "convert"., making it the largest city in the state by area.

The GDP of Visakhapatnam ranks tenth among Indian cities at $26 Billion (USD).[8][9] Visakhapatnam is the principal commercial hub of the state, and contributes to its economy in many sectors such as heavy industries, tourism, industrial minerals, fishing, and information technology.[8] Visakhapatnam Port is the fifth busiest port in India in terms of cargo handled.[10] The city serves as the headquarters for Eastern Naval Command of the Indian Navy and is home to the oldest shipyard and the only natural harbour on the east coast of India.[11][12]

Visakhapatnam's history stretches back to the 6th century BCE. Historically, it was considered part of the Kalinga region,[13][14] and later ruled by the Vengi kingdom, the Pallava and Eastern Ganga dynasties.[15] Archaeological records suggest that the present city was built around the 11th and 12th centuries CE with control over the city fluctuating between the Chola Dynasty and the Gajapati Kingdom[13][14] until its conquest by the Vijayanagara Empire in the 15th century.[15] Conquered by the Mughals in the 16th century, European powers eventually set up trading interests in the city, and by the end of the 18th century it had come under French rule.[13][14] Control passed to the British in 1804 and it remained under British colonial rule until India's independence in 1947. After independence, Visakhapatnam developed into one of the country's chief ports and became the headquarters of the Eastern Naval Command of the Indian Navy.[13][14]

The city is often known as The Jewel of the East Coast, The City of Destiny and the Goa of the East Coast.[11] Visakhapatnam's beaches (such as Ramakrishna Mission Beach and Rushikonda), parks (such as Kailasagiri and VUDA Park), museums (such as the Kursura Submarine Museum and Visakha Museum), and proximity to areas of natural beauty (such as the Kambalakonda Wildlife Sanctuary, Araku Valley, and Borra Caves) have helped the city become a significant tourist destination.[16][17][18]


File:Vizag aerial view.jpg
Aerial view of Visakhapatnam city

It is situated between the Eastern Ghats to its west and the Bay of Bengal to its east, bordering on the north with the state of Orissa and Vizianagaram district and East Godavari District to the south. The city coordinates lies between 17.6883° N latitude, and 83.2186° E longitude. It's periphery consists of plains along the coast line while the interiors boast of the beautiful hills of the Eastern Ghats which surround it on the North and the West. This region is also called the Agency Division. It occupies an area of approximately Script error: No such module "convert"..


Visakhapatnam's history stretches back to the 6th century B.C.E., and the city finds mention in ancient texts, such as the 4th century B.C.E. writings of Pāṇini and Katyayana. Historically considered part of the Kalinga region,[13][14] it was ruled by the Vengi kingdom and the Pallava and Eastern Ganga dynasties during medieval times.[15] Archaeological records suggest that the present city was built around the 11th and 12th centuries C.E. by the Chola Dynasty king Kulothunga I. Control over the city fluctuated between the Chola Dynasty of Tamil Nadu and the Gajapati Kingdom of Odisha[13][14] until its conquest by the Vijayanagara Empire in the 15th century.[15] In the 16th century, it was conquered by the Mughals. European powers eventually set up trading interests in the city, and Visakhapatnam came under French rule at the end of the 18th century.[13][14]

The city was ruled by Andhra Kings of Vengi and Pallavas. The city is named after Sri Vishaka Varma, Legend has it that Radha and Viśakha were born on the same day, and were equally beautiful. Sri Vishaka Sakhi, is the second most important gopi of the eight main gopis. She carries messages between Radha and Krishna, and is the most expert gopi messenger. Local residents believe that an Andhra king,built a temple to pay homage to his family deity Viśakha. This is now inundated under sea water near R K Beach. Another theory is that it is named after a women disciple of Buddha named Viśakha.Later it was ruled by Qutb Shahis, Mughal Empire (between 1689–1724), Nizam (1724–1757) and France (1757–1765) before being captured by the British in 1765. European powers eventually set up trading interests in the city, and Visakhapatnam came under French rule at the end of the 18th century.[13][14]

The British captured Visakhapatnam after the 1804 Battle of Vizagapatam, and it remained under British colonial rule until India's independence in 1947 which was a part of the Northern Circars.

Buddhist influence

Hindu texts state that during the fifth century BC, the Visakhapatnam region was part of Kalinga territory, which extended to the Godavari River. Relics found in the area also prove the existence of a Buddhist empire in the region. Kalinga later lost the territory to King Ashoka in the bloodiest battle of its time, which prompted Ashoka to embrace Buddhism. Visakhapatnam is surrounded by ancient Buddhist sites, most of which have been excavated recently and illustrate the legacy of Buddhism in the region.


Pavurallakonda ("pigeon hill") is a hillock west of Bhimli, about Script error: No such module "convert". from Visakhapatnam. The Buddhist settlement found here is estimated to date back from the first century BC to the second century AD. On the hillock (which overlooks the coastline) are 16 rock-cut cisterns for collecting rainwater. Gopalapatnam, on the Tandava River, is a village surrounded by brick stupas, viharas, pottery and other Buddhist artefacts.


In 1907 British archaeologist Alexander Rea unearthed Sankaram, a 2,000-year-old Buddhist site. The name "Śankaram" derives from the Sangharama (temple or monastery). Located Script error: No such module "convert". south of Visakhapatnam, it is known locally as Bojjannakonda and is a significant Buddhist site in Andhra Pradesh. The three major schools of Buddhism (Hinayana, Mahayana and Vajrayana) flourished here. The complex is known for its monolithic stupas, rock-cut caves and brick structures. The primary stupa was initially carved out of rock and covered with bricks. Excavations yielded historic pottery and Satavahana coins from the first century AD. At Lingalakonda, there are also rock-cut monolithic stupas in rows spread over the hill. The vihara was active for about 1,000 years.

Nearby is another Buddhist site, Bojjannakonda, with a number of images of the Buddha carved on the rock face of the caves. At Ligalametta there are hundreds of rock-cut monolithic stupas in rows, spread across the hill. Among other Buddhist attractions are a relic casket, three chaitya halls, votive platforms, stupas and Vajrayana sculptures.


Bavikonda is an important Buddhist heritage site located on a hill about 15 km, northeast from Visakhapatnam city. Here the Buddhist habitation is noticed on a 16 ha flat terraced area. The Hinayana school of Buddhism was practised at the monastery between the 3rd century B.C. and the 3rd century A.D. Bavikonda has remains of an entire Buddhist complex, comprising 26 structures belonging to three phases. A piece of bone stored in an urn recovered here is believed to belong to the mortal remains of the Budda. The word Bavikonda in Telugu means "a hill of wells". Fitting its name, Bavikonda is a hill with wells for the collection of rainwater. It is located Script error: No such module "convert". from Visakhapatnam and is a significant Buddhist site. Excavation carried out from 1982–1987 revealed a Buddhist establishment including a mahachaitya embedded with relic caskets,[clarification needed] a large vihara complex, numerous votive stupas, a stone-pillared congregation and rectangular halls and a refectory. Artifacts recovered from the site include Roman and Satavahana coins and pottery dating from the third century BC to the second century AD. A significant finding was a piece of bone (with a large quantity of ash) in an urn, which is believed to be the remains of the Buddha. The Bavikonda site is considered one of the oldest Buddhist sites in Asia. It is a reminder of the Buddhist civilisation which once existed in southern India, and also reminiscent of Borobudur in Indonesia.


File:Buddhist Ruins at Totlakonda.jpg
Third-century BC Buddhist ruins of Totlakonda

About Script error: No such module "convert". from Visakhapatnam is Thotlakonda, a Buddhist complex situated on top of a hill. The Buddhist Complex on the Mangamaripeta hilltop, locally known as Totlakonda, lies about 16 km from Visakhapatnam on Visakhapatnam-Bheemili Beach Road. After its discovery (during an aerial survey), the Government of A.P. declared the 48 ha site as a protected monument in 1978. Excavations in 1988 to 1992 exposed structural remains and artefacts, classified as Religious, Secular and Civil. These structures include the Stupa, Chaityagrihas, pillared congregation halls, bhandagaras, refectory (bhojanasala), drainage and stone pathways. The site covers an area of Script error: No such module "convert"., and has been declared a protected area by the government of Andhra Pradesh. Excavations have revealed three kinds of structural remains: religious, secular and civil. Structures include a mahastupa, sixteen votive stupas, a stone-pillared congregation hall, eleven rock-cut cisterns, well-paved stone pathways, an apsidal chaitya-griha, three round chaitgya-grihas, two votive platforms, ten viharas and a kitchen complex with three halls and a refectory (dining hall). Apart from the structures, Buddhist treasures excavated include nine Satavahana and five Roman silver coins, terracotta tiles, stucco decorative pieces, sculptured panels, miniature stupa models in stone, Buddha padas depicted with ashtamangal symbols (i.e. the eight auspicious symbols of Swastika, Shrivasta, Nandhyavarta, Vardhamanaka, Bhadrasana, Kalasha, Minyugala and Darpan) and early pottery.

Later history

File:1971 War Memorial at Vizag Beach.JPG
War Memorial at vizag beach road

The territory of Visakhapatnam then came under the Andhra rulers of Vengi, and Chalukyas and Pallavas ruled the land. The region was ruled by the Eastern Ganga king- SuryaVamsa Kshatriyas and the Gajapati kings of Odisha from the 10th century to the 16th centuries AD (when the region came under the Visakhapatnam rulers). Based on archaeological evidence, the Prabhakar and the Eastern Ganga Kings of Odisha built temples in the city in the 11th and 12th centuries. The Mughals ruled the area under the Visakhapatnam Nizam during the late 15th and early 16th centuries. European merchants from France, Holland and the East India Company used the natural port to export tobacco, paddy, coal, iron ore, ivory, muslin and other textile products.

Local legend tells that an Andhra king, on his way to Benares, rested at Visakhapatnam and was so enchanted by its beauty that he ordered a temple to be built in honour of his family deity, Viśakha. Archaeological sources, however, reveal that the temple was probably built between the 11th and 12th centuries by the Cholas. A shipping merchant, Shankarayya Chetty, built one of the mandapams (pillared halls) of the temple. Although it no longer exists (possibly washed away about 100 years ago by a cyclonic storm), elderly residents of Visakhapatnam remember visits to the ancient shrine by their grandparents (although author Ganapatiraju Atchuta Rama Raju denies this).[19]

During the 18th century Visakhapatnam was part of the Northern Circars, a region comprising coastal Andhra and southern coastal Odisha which was first under French control and later British. Visakhapatnam became a district in the Madras Presidency of British India. In September 1804, British and French squadrons fought the naval Battle of Vizagapatam near the harbour. After India's independence it was the largest district in the country, and was subsequently divided into the districts of Srikakulam, Vizianagaram and Visakhapatnam.

Part of the city is known by its colonial British name, Waltair; during the colonial era, the city's hub was the Waltair railway station and the surrounding part of the city is still called Waltair.


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This page is a soft redirect. Climate data for Visakhapatnam
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

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This page is a soft redirect.Source #1: India Meteorological Department (record high and low up to 2010)[20][21]

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Visakhapatnam is a cosmopolitan mix of people from various parts of India. From a population of a few thousand during the 18th and early 19th centuries, the population grew steadily. The city doubled its population from 1990–2000, due to a large migrant population from surrounding areas and other parts of the country coming to work in its factories.

Historical population
1871 —    
1881 —    
1891 —    
1901 40,892—    
1911 43,413+6.2%
1921 44,711+3.0%
1931 57,303+28.2%
1941 70,243+22.6%
1951 108,042+53.8%
1961 211,190+95.5%
1971 363,467+72.1%
1981 603,630+66.1%
1991 752,037+24.6%
2001 1,345,938+79.0%
2011 2,091,811+55.4%

According to the 2011 India census,[23] the population of Visakhapatnam in 2011 was 1,730,320, of which 875,199 were male and 855,121 were female. The sex ratio of Visakhapatnam city was 977 females per 1000 males. In the education section, the total literate population in Visakhapatnam city was 1,298,896, of which 698,959 were males while 599,937 were females. The average literacy rate of Visakhapatnam city was 82.66 percent, of which male and female literacy were 88.02 and 77.18 percent respectively. There were 158,924 children ages 0 to 6 in Visakhapatnam city as of 2011. There were 81,119 boys while 77,805 were girls. The child sex ratio was 959 girls per 1000 boys. 10 percent of the population was under age six. Visakhapatnam is ranked 122 in the list of fastest-growing cities in the world.[24] [25]

Hinduism is practised by the majority of its citizens, followed by Islam and Christianity. The area practised Buddhism for two millennia, as evidenced by the many Buddhist sangharamas in the outlying areas; currently, however, the population of Buddhists has waned. There is little religious tension.


Telugu is the official language of Visakhapatnam.[26] It is also the most widely spoken language of the state of Andhra Pradesh. Two dialects of Telugu are spoken by the people, the common dialect and the Uttarandhra dialect. The latter is mainly spoken by the people who originally belong to the districts of Visakhapatnam, Vizianagaram and Srikakulam.

Besides Telugu, Hindi is also spoken by the North Indians Settled here. Visakhapatnam is a cosmopolitan city where people from different parts of India reside. Hence, English is also widely spoken among the people.

A substantial population of Visakhapatnam comprise Bengalis and Oriyas. Also, other people from other states are also present due to the Naval presence and high concentration of public-sector employers. There is also an Anglo-Indian community.


File:Fishermen at Visakhapatnam beach.jpg
Fishermen at work, Visakhapatnam
Visakhapatnam Port

Visakhapatnam has developed into a major economic destination,. It has all the sectors like Industrial, Fishing, IT, Pharma, Export & Imports by Sea trade etc. The city was identified as one of the fastest-growing in the world, economically and demographically.[27][28] Several factors contributed to its economic growth, including the natural harbour, rail, road and air connectivity to national and International destinations. Tourism also plays an important role in generating revenue to the state of Andhra Pradesh, with many tourist spots in and around the city, attracts large number of tourists.[29]


Fishing is a major sector in the city[citation needed] and has one of the largest harbour in the country for the fishing industry and seafood exports. A number of fishermen has their livelihoods depend on Fishing in the city. The ice factories in and outside the Fishing Harbour, caters to the needs of the fishermen and provides employment as well.

Ports include Visakhapatnam Port, Gangavaram Port which serve as a gateway for contributing to the development of the petroleum, steel and fertiliser industries. It is a hub for iron ore and other mineral exports which are exported by sea to other countries. Fishing Harbour at Visakhapatnam Port Trust is one of the biggest in the Coastal corridor of Andhra Pradesh generating huge revenue[citation needed].

Industrial sector

There are many SEZ's & industrial corridors such as, VSEZ, APSEZ, APIIC, Aganumpudi Industrial Park, Visakha Dairy, JNPC, Brandix Apparel City etc., are located in and around the city.

APIIC is a special economic zone (covering Script error: No such module "convert".. It is occupied by industries such as WS Industries, Pokarna Limited, Uniparts, Confidence Petroleum, Southern Online Bio, Nagarjuna AgriChem, Anjaney Alloys, Maithon Alloys and Abhijit Ferro Alloys.

Brandix Apparel City is a textile-based SEZ covering Script error: No such module "convert".. The aim of this project is to provide 60,000 local jobs.[30] The SEZ has textile manufacturers namely Pioneer Elastic Fiber, Ocean India, Quantum Clothing, Fountain Set Group and Limited Brands. Pilkington, an automotive-glass manufacturer is also has its company.

Drugs and pharmaceuticals: Jawaharlal Nehru Pharma City (JNPC) is the only pharmaceutical SEZ in India, with 58 pharmaceutical companies including PharmaZell of Germany and Eisai Pharma of Japan.[31]

Heavy industries

File:Cargo ship at Vizag Shipyard.JPG
A cargo ship at Vizag Shipyard

The defence controlled Hindustan Shipyard built India's first ship Jala Usha. Ports and Shipyard led to many private sectors to set up large-scale industries. Some of them include, Visakhapatnam Export, GAIL, HPCL, BHEL, Hindustan Zinc, Dredging Corporation of India, Coromandel Fertilizers, RINL and LG Polymers, Jindal Stainless Steels, Synergies Castings, Rain Calcining Limited, Reliance, Brandix, Essar Pellet Plant, Andhra (Cements, Petrochemicals and Ferroalloys) Ltd. etc.

Steel plant

Visakhapatnam has a steel plant, whose corporate entity RINL is the second largest state-run steel industry. The capacity of the plant is 6.3MT, is planned to become a 20MT plant in the future, the largest plant in a single location. The plant had revenues of 144570 million (US$Lua error in Module:Math at line 495: attempt to index field 'ParserFunctions' (a nil value). billion) for 2011–2012 and has about 17,800 employees.

Software industry

Tech Mahindra Development Centre

Visakhapatnam is experiencing growth in the IT sector, contributing to the local economy.[32] An area of 21.16 acres on Hill No. 3 in Rushikonda has been allocated and is identified for construction of the iconic Signature Tower.[33] The government has established an IT special economic zone and incubation center in the Rushikonda Hills. Its skilled workforce allowed the entry of many national and international IT and banking firms such as Tech Mahindra, Wipro, IBM Kenexa, Infotech, Concentrix, WNS, Sutherland, and HSBC.

Three of the Global Big Four, Google Inc., Accenture and IBM, and India's IT giants TCS, WIPRO, Infosys and TechMahindra are to open offices in the city.[34]



The prevalence of ferroalloy plants is due to the availability of manganese ore near Visakhapatnam. Aluminium refineries such as Anrak Aluminium and Jindal Aluminium are developing because of the bauxite reserves around the city. India's first rare earths (minerals) extraction plant at Atchutapuram is owned by Toyotsu Rare Earth India Ltd. (Partners of Toyota).

HPCL Petrochemical Complex

Petroleum, chemicals and petrochemicals

Visakhapatnam was one of five sites in the country selected to hold strategic crude-oil reserves in case of a national emergency. IOC and BPCL have their bottling units in the city. Hindustan Petroleum expanded and the Visakhapatnam Export Processing Zone was established. Visakhapatnam is a part of the Petroleum, Chemical and Petrochemical Investment Region (PCPIR), proposed between Visakhapatnam and Kakinada. The PCPIR is expected to generate 1.2 million jobs and a projected investment of ₨34,30,000 million.

Power Plants

Simhadri Super Thermal Power Plant of NTPC Limited is expanding from 1,000 to 2,000 MW at a cost of 50 billion (US$Lua error in Module:Math at line 495: attempt to index field 'ParserFunctions' (a nil value). million). Hindujas has begun construction of a 1,070-MW thermal power plant in Visakhapatnam district at a cost of 70 billion (US$Lua error in Module:Math at line 495: attempt to index field 'ParserFunctions' (a nil value). billion).


File:City Scape of Visakhapatnam.jpg
Cityscape of Visakhapatnam, the largest city of Andhra Pradesh

With the growing population, Visakhapatnam has turned from a fishing village into a commercial city with busy streets. Some of the busy areas of the city include Jagadamba Centre, Dwaraka Nagar, NAD X Road, Suryabagh, Gopalapatnam, Daba Gardens, Poorna market, Town kotha road, Akkayyapalem, Seethammadhara, Maddilapalem, Gajuwaka, MVP Colony, Maharanipeta Siripuram, Madhurawada, Asilmetta, Railway New Colony, Dondaparthi, Marripalem,

Some of the congestion has come down after the completion of 1.8 km long fly over road connecting RTC Complex and Waltair Station Approach Road.


File:INS Kursura (S20).jpg
INS Kursura (S20)

Visakhapatnam is one of the main tourism destinations in the state of Andhra Pradesh. The city is famous for beaches, caves and the Eastern Ghats as well as wildlife sanctuaries.[35]

The landmarks of the city include Dolphin's Nose (rocky headland resembling dolphin's nose), Lighthouse, Kailasagiri, Beach Road, VUDA Park, Visakha Museum and Matsyadarsini (an aquarium). INS Kursura Submarine Museum, the only of its kind in India,[29] Indira Gandhi Zoological Park in the city has variety of wildlife species.

Beaches along coastline of Bay of Bengal includes Rushikonda Beach[36] RK Beach . Other include Lawson's Bay, Yarada, Bheemili, Tenneti, Sagar Nagar and Gangavaram beaches.

Araku Valley, Script error: No such module "convert". from Visakhapatnam, is a hill station at an elevation of over Script error: No such module "convert". and known for its gardens, valleys, waterfalls and streams. Borra Caves are caves discovered by British geologist William King in 1807.[37] Tyda (an Eco tourism project), Kambalakonda Wildlife Sanctuary under Andhra Pradesh Forest Department are wildlife conservation sites[29] near the city.

Some of the religious sites are also of great importance like ISKCON temple;[38] Simhachalam temple of Lord Narasimha Script error: No such module "convert". north of the city,[39][40] and Sri Kanaka Mahalakshmi Temple. Recent archaeological excavations of Buddhist shrines revealed Buddhist dominance in this area and these are recognised as heritage sites that include Boudharamam, Saligudam, Sankaram and Devipuram etc.



File:Vizag seaport.jpg
Visakhapatnam seaport, with harbour interchange fly-by road
APSRTC Vennela bus

Visakhapatnam is one of the major cities on the east coast of India connected by NH5, a major highway and a part of the Golden Quadrilateral system of Indian highways connecting Chennai and Kolkata. The city has a broad network of roads. State owned APSRTC runs buses to various places like Kakinada, Guntur, Kadapa, Kurnool, Rajahmundry, Vijayawada etc. Also, to distance places like Chennai, Bangalore, Kolkata, Bhubaneswar etc.

Residents of Visakhapatnam use city buses run by APSRTC, that runs buses along a number of routes across the city and its suburbs. The APSRTC complex at Asilametta is the hub for most of these buses. As of now the city has two Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS) on Pendurti and Simhachalam corridors.Click here to view the bus route numbers of visakhapatnam


The station is called Waltair railway station. Later, around 1987, Mr. D. V. Subbarao, the then mayor of Visakhapatnam, changed the name to Visakhapatnam. The Visakhapatnam railway station is administered by the East Coast Railway of Indian Railways and is the headquarters for the Waltair Railway Division. It will be de-linked from East Coast Railway once a new railway zone for Andhra Pradesh is formed and will be part of new zone according to AP Reorganisation act 2014.

It is located on the Chennai Central-Howrah Station route, although the main line bypasses the Central Station. Duvvada railway station, a suburban station on the main line (near the Visakhapatnam Steel Plant) is being developed into a satellite hub to improve train service into the city.

There are direct rail links to many parts both in and outside the state to all major junctions. The K-K line from Visakhapatnam to Kirandul via Araku is laid through eastern ghats. Up to Araku station it is having 84 bridges and 58 tunnels.[41] Also, it pass through South India's highest elevation broad gauge station, Similiguda, just before Borra caves. Visakhapatnam also shelters the country's largest Diesel Loco Shed with a capacity of 206.[42]

Metro rail A metro rail project has also been planned by GVMC to arrest chaotic traffic condition on the streets. After the proposal was submitted by the GVMC in February 2014, the Urban Transport Department gave in-principle approval for going ahead with feasibility studies and DPR.[43]


Visakhapatnam International Airport is the busiest airport in Andhra Pradesh. It is connected by daily flights with Dubai, Singapore, Kuala Lumpur, Chennai, Delhi, Mumbai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Kolkata, Kochi, Bhubaneshwar, Raipur, Tirupathi, Port Blair and Vijayawada. Visakhapatnam Airport has been operating night flights, and the airport is 24hr operational.[44]


On the east coast of India, Visakhapatnam serves as the gateway waterway for Andhra Pradesh. It has one of the country's largest ports, and the oldest shipyard on the east coast. It is a land-locked harbour,[45] as connected to the sea by a channel cut through rock and sand. Visakhapatnam is one of the busiest ports in India. Vizag Seaport owns two berths in the inner harbour; berth EQ-8 is fully mechanised and berth EQ-9 berth is not. Both berths are capable of handling Panamax vessels. The shipyard at Visakhapatnam is the largest in India. On the Chennai–Kolkota corridor, the city is also a hub for ground traffic. The Gangavaram Port is India's deepest seaport. In December 2010, Coal India agreed to enable an additional berth to be built at the port.[46]


Visakhapatnam is considered as a center for education in Andhra Pradesh and there are a number of primary, high schools and colleges in the city. In addition to state-run schools there are private institutions, missionary schools and colleges.

The Indian Maritime University was established as a central university by the government of India by an act of Parliament (the Indian Maritime University Act 2008). IMU is poised to play a role in the development of human resources for the maritime sector. Visakhapatnam also has the National Institute of Oceanography.

Established in 1878, A.V.N. College is one of the city's oldest educational institutions.[47] Visakhapatnam is also home to Andhra University (AU), established in 1926. President of India, Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan was vice-chancellor of the university between 1931 and 1936. AU and its affiliated colleges provide education to thousands of students up to Postgraduation in many fields. The AU College of Pharmacy is the second-oldest pharmacy college in India. The university is in the process of obtaining IIEST status.

Visakhapatnam is also home to Damodaram Sanjivayya National Law University, which is the National Law University for the state of Andhra Pradesh. DSNLU takes entrance through Common Law Admission Test and ranks 15th by order of establishment among the 17 National Law Universities.

Andhra Medical College, established in 1902, is the home of several teaching hospitals. Andhra University College of Engineering (Autonomous), The GITAM University (the first private university in Andhra Pradesh) and the Gayatri Vidya Parishad College of Engineering are other technical-education institutions in the city.

The Indian Institutes of Management (IIM-V) to start admissions with flagship programme in management from the academic year 2015-16 [48]

Vizag is due to get India's First Packaging park[49] with an Indian Institute of Packaging, IIP[50] and BITS Pilani & Birla International School under the aegis of Sarala Birla Academy.[51]

Defence & research organisations

Naval base

Visakhapatnam is the headquarters of the Eastern Naval Command, the Naval Science and Technological Laboratory (a DRDO Lab), a Chief Quality Assurance Establishment (CQAE), an EFS office, a Naval Dockyard (established in 1949) and Naval Bases including INS Virbahu, INS Kalinga, INS Samudrika, INS Satavahana, and INS Dega. A new base at INS Rambilli is being built on Script error: No such module "convert". with an investment of 15 billion (US$Lua error in Module:Math at line 495: attempt to index field 'ParserFunctions' (a nil value). million), as the first dedicated submarine base in India. India's first nuclear submarine INS Arihant was launched in the Naval Dockyard, and Bharat Dynamics has begun manufacturing torpedoes. Visakhapatnam also has presence of the Indian Coast Guard including ships and offices. Multiple naval training establishments, such as the Navy ShipWright School,[52] are also situated here.

Research organisations

The Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) plans its second research facility in the country (after Trombay) in the area. A permanent facility, which will include a school dedicated to nuclear-power technology. There are also offices of the National Institute of Oceanography and the India Meteorological Department.


ACA-VDCA Cricket stadium at Madhurawada

Cricket is the most popular sport, followed by tennis and football. Visakhapatnam is home to a number of local cricket teams participating in district and zone matches. Gully cricket (a form of cricket played in streets or parks) is a popular pastime for local youth. Visakhapatnam co-hosted the 32nd National Games alongside, Hyderabad. The city has seven cricket stadiums, which are used for Ranji Trophy matches; two of these stadiums have been used for one day international matches. Some of these stadiums are:

  • Port Trust Golden Jubilee Stadium: Second-largest stadium in Visakhapatnam, which has hosted Under-19 Youth Internationals


Telugu News Papers
English News Papers

Sister cities


See also


  1. ^ "Municipal commissioner". The Times of India (Visakhapatnam). 22 February 2015. Retrieved 23 February 2015. 
  2. ^ "Commissioner of Police". The Hindu (Visakhapatnam). 26 January 2015. Retrieved 23 February 2015. 
  3. ^ "Area of GVMC". GVMC Official Website. Retrieved 9 August 2014. 
  4. ^ "Elevation for Visakhapatnam". Veloroutes. Retrieved 3 August 2014. 
  5. ^ a b "Census 2011" (PDF). The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India,. Retrieved 21 July 2014. 
  6. ^ a b "Area of GVMC". GVMC Official Website. Retrieved 21 July 2014. 
  7. ^ "censusindia 2011: Major Agglomerations" (PDF). Retrieved 25 April 2014. 
  8. ^ a b "India's top 15 cities with the highest GDP". Yahoo Finance. 15 July 2014. Retrieved 8 May 2015. 
  9. ^ Nicole Bippen (17 February 2014). "The 10 Richest Indian Cities". The Richest. Retrieved 15 July 2014. 
  10. ^ "Competition shakes up Visakhapatnam port". HT Mint. February 11, 2010. Retrieved 22 November 2012. 
  11. ^ a b Students Academy (14 November 2014). Visakhapatnam-The City of Destiny-India. p. 5. ISBN 978-1-257-06510-3. Retrieved 14 November 2014. 
  12. ^ Gopalakrishnan, Hema (7 November 2012). "A career in Vizag". The Hindu. Retrieved 18 May 2015. 
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h "Maps of India - Visakhapatnam History". Maps of India. Retrieved 9 May 2015. 
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h "History Of Visakhapatnam". I Love India. Retrieved 9 May 2015. 
  15. ^ a b c d "Visakhapatnam District". Visakhapatnam District. Retrieved 9 May 2015. 
  16. ^ "Vizag Tour". Retrieved 9 May 2015. 
  17. ^ "Museums in Vizag". Retrieved 9 May 2015. 
  18. ^ "Kambalakonda Wildlife Sanctuary". Retrieved 9 May 2015. 
  19. ^ "Viśakha traces its name to Buddhist princess". The Hindu. 15 July 2002. Retrieved 24 September 2009. 
  20. ^ "Visakhapatnam Climatological Table Period: 1951–1980". India Meteorological Department. Retrieved 25 March 2015. 
  21. ^ "Ever recorded Maximum and minimum temperatures up to 2010" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. Retrieved 25 March 2015. 
  22. ^ "Visakhapatnam Climate Normals 1971–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 25 March 2015. 
  23. ^ 2011 India Census. Retrieved on 29 May 2012.
  24. ^ Shekharjyoti Kalita. "Eleven Indian cities among 100 fastest growing cities in the world". Retrieved 24 September 2009. 
  25. ^ "World's fastest growing urban areas (1)". City Mayors. Retrieved 6 May 2014. 
  26. ^ Retrieved 6 May 2014.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  27. ^ David Satterthwaite (2007) The transition to a predominantly urban world and its underpinnings. Human Settlements Discussion Paper Series. Theme: Urban Change −4
  28. ^ 11 Indian cities among world's fastest growing. Times of India. (23 October 2007). Retrieved on 3 December 2011.
  29. ^ a b c "Vizag city tourism". AP Tourism Department. Retrieved 28 May 2014. 
  30. ^ [1]. Retrieved on 6 May 2014.
  31. ^ ":: Jawaharlal Nehru Pharmacity". 21 February 2005. Retrieved 6 May 2014. 
  32. ^ "IT Industry in Vizag". The Hindu. Retrieved 8 May 2014. 
  33. ^ "Signature Tower in Vizag". The Hindu. Retrieved 10 December 2014. 
  34. ^ "IT Giants setting up offices in Vizag". The Hindu. Retrieved 29 September 2014. 
  35. ^ India. "Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh India Tourist Information". Retrieved 6 May 2014. 
  36. ^ "Beaches in vizag". vizaginformation. Retrieved 28 May 2014. 
  37. ^ Google Books. Retrieved on 6 May 2014.
  38. ^ "ISKCON temple". iskconvizag. Retrieved 28 May 2014. 
  39. ^ "Hisrtory of temple". simhachalam. Retrieved 28 May 2014. 
  40. ^ "About Simhachalam temple". simhachalam. Retrieved 28 May 2014. 
  41. ^ Nischal, G.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  42. ^ Nischal, G. (PDF)  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  43. ^ "Vizag metro Tenders issued". Deccan-Journal. Retrieved 25 June 2014. 
  44. ^ "Visakhapatnam Airport". Airports Authority of India. Retrieved 20 May 2015. 
  45. ^ Santosh Patnaik Beach nourishment taken up on a bigger scale. (8 March 2010). Retrieved on 3 December 2011.
  46. ^ "Coal India strikes port deal". 18 December 2010. Retrieved 18 December 2010. 
  47. ^ "Home Page of Mrs. A.V.N. College". Retrieved 6 May 2014. 
  48. ^
  49. ^,india8217s-first-packaging-park-likely-to-be-set-up-in-vizag.aspx
  50. ^
  51. ^
  52. ^
  53. ^

External links

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