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Voiceless alveolar flap

Voiceless alveolar tap
ɾ̥
ɾ̊
IPA number 124 402A
Encoding
Entity (decimal) Template:Infobox IPA/format numbers
Unicode (hex) Template:Infobox IPA/format numbers
X-SAMPA 4_0
Template:Infobox IPA/format numbers

The voiceless alveolar tap or flap is rare as a phoneme. The symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represent this sound are ɾ̥ and ɾ̊, combinations of the letter for the voiced alveolar tap/flap and a diacritic indicating voicelessness, either above or below the letter. The equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is 4_0.

Features

Features of the voiceless alveolar flap:

  • Its manner of articulation is flap, which means it is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that the tongue makes very brief contact.
  • Its place of articulation is dental, alveolar or post-alveolar, which means it is articulated behind upper front teeth, at the alveolar ridge or behind the alveolar ridge. It is most often apical, which means that it is pronounced with the tip of the tongue.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence

Alveolar
Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Greek Cypriot αδερφός [ɐðe̞ɾ̥ˈfo̞s] 'brother' Allophone of /ɾ/ before voiceless consonants. May be a voiceless alveolar trill instead
Icelandic hrafn [ˈɾ̥apn̪̊] 'raven' Realization of /r̥/ for some speakers. Also illustrates /n̥/. See Icelandic phonology
Portuguese European[1] assar [ɐˈsaɾ̥] 'to bake' Apparent allophone of /ɾ/; distribution unclear, but common in the coda in Jesus (2001)'s corpus. See Portuguese phonology

Voiceless alveolar raised non-sonorant flap

Voiceless alveolar raised non-sonorant flap
ɾ̝̊
IPA number 124 402A 429
Encoding
Entity (decimal) Template:Infobox IPA/format numbers
Unicode (hex) Template:Infobox IPA/format numbers
X-SAMPA 4_0_r
Template:Infobox IPA/format numbers

Features

Features of the voiceless alveolar raised non-sonorant flap:

  • Its manner of articulation is flap fricative, which means it's a flap and a non-sibilant fricative pronounced simultaneously.
  • Its place of articulation is laminal alveolar, which means it is articulated with the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Czech[2] třista [ˈt̪ɾ̝̊ɪs̪t̪ä] 'three hundred' Allophone of /r̝/ after voiceless consonants;[2] may be a trill fricative instead.[2] See Czech phonology
Kobon [example needed]
Turkish[3] bir [biɾ̝̊] 'a, an' Word-final allophone of /ɾ/.[3] See Turkish phonology

See also

References

Bibliography

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