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Voiceless alveolar lateral affricate

Voiceless alveolar lateral affricate
t͡ɬ
t͜ɬ
ƛ
IPA number 103 (148)
Encoding
Entity (decimal) Template:Infobox IPA/format numbers
Unicode (hex) Template:Infobox IPA/format numbers
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The voiceless alveolar lateral affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet is t͡ɬ (often simplified to ), and in Americanist phonetic notation it is ƛ (lambda bar).

Features

Features of the voiceless alveolar lateral affricate:

  • Its manner of articulation is affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the airflow entirely, then allowing air flow through a constricted channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
  • Its place of articulation is alveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge, termed respectively apical and laminal.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a lateral consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream over the sides of the tongue, rather than down the middle.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Cherokee [ə̃ʔt͡ɬa˦] 'no'
Haida tla'únhl [t͡ɬʌʔʊ́nɬ] 'six'
Nahuatl āxōlōtl [aːʃoːloːt͡ɬ] 'axolotl'
Sahaptin [t͡ɬupt] 'jumping'
Spanish Mexican[1] Xóchitl [ˈso̞t͡ʃit͡ɬ] 'Xóchitl' See Spanish phonology
Tlingit[2] dleit [t͡ɬeet] 'snow'
Tsez элIни [ˈʔɛ̝t͡ɬni] 'winter'
Tswana tlala [t͡ɬala] 'hunger'

Notes

References