Features of the voiceless alveolar lateral approximant:
- Its manner of articulation is approximant, which means it is produced by narrowing the vocal tract at the place of articulation, but not enough to produce a turbulent airstream.
- There are four specific variants of [l̥]:
- Dental, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue at the upper teeth, termed respectively apical and laminal.
- Denti-alveolar, which means it is articulated with the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge, and the tip of the tongue behind upper teeth.
- Alveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge, termed respectively apical and laminal.
- Postalveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue behind the alveolar ridge, termed respectively apical and laminal.
- Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
- It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
- It is a lateral consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream over the sides of the tongue, rather than down the middle.
- The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
Dental or denti-alveolar
|| Velarized laminal denti-alveolar. It is a frequent realization of /ɫ/ in word-final and preconsonantal positions. See Turkish phonology
|| Before /l/, aspiration in /pʰ, tˢ, kʰ/ is realized as devoicing of /l/. See Danish phonology
|| 'these fishes'
|| Contrasts plain voiceless, plain voiced, palatalized voiceless and palatalized voiced versions.
|| Contrasts voiceless and voiced lateral approximants
|| Word-final allophone of /l/ after voiceless consonants. See Ukrainian phonology
- Basbøll, Hans (2005), The Phonology of Danish, ISBN 0-203-97876-5
- Danyenko, Andrii; Vakulenko, Serhii (1995), Ukrainian, Lincom Europa, ISBN 9783929075083
- Zimmer, Karl; Orgun, Orhan (1999), "Turkish", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet (PDF), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 154–158, ISBN 0-521-65236-7