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Voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate

Voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate
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The voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The sound is transcribed in the International Phonetic Alphabet with t͡ɕ (formerly ʨ). The voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate occurs in languages such as Mandarin Chinese and Serbo-Croatian.


Features of the voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate:


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Adyghe Abadzekh чъыгы About this sound [t͡ɕəɣə]  'tree'
Cantonese zyu1 [tɕyː˥] 'pig' Contrasts with aspirated form. Allophone of /t͡s/, usually in front of the front high vowels /iː/, /ɪ/, /yː/. See Cantonese phonology
Catalan[1] All dialects fletxa [ˈfɫet͡ɕə] 'arrow' See Catalan phonology
Valencian xec [ˈt͡ɕek] 'cheque'
Danish[2] tjener [ˈt͡ɕe̝ːnɐ] 'servant' Normal realization of the sequence /tj/.[2] See Danish phonology
Japanese 知人 chijin [t͡ɕid͡ʑĩɴ] 'acquaintance' See Japanese phonology
Korean jip [t͡ɕip̚] 'house' See Korean phonology
Mandarin 北京 Běijīng About this sound [peɪ˨˩ t͡ɕiŋ˥]  'Beijing' Contrasts with aspirated form. Pronounced by some speakers as a palatalized dental. In complementary distribution with the dental [t͡s, t͡sʰ], with the velar [k, kʰ], and the retroflex [ʈ͡ʂ, ʈ͡ʂʰ] series. See Standard Chinese phonology
Norwegian tjern [t͡ɕæɳ] 'pond' See Norwegian phonology
Polish[3] ćma About this sound [t͡ɕmä]  'moth' See Polish phonology
Portuguese[4] Brazilian tcheco [ˈtɕɛku] 'Czech' Allophone of /t/ before /i, ĩ/ (including when [i, ĩ, j] is not actually produced) and other instances of [i] (e.g. epenthesis), marginal sound otherwise. Argued both to be laminal [tʃ],[5] and generally produced "in the middle of the hard palate",[4] same of fellow alveolo-palatal [l̠ʲ] and [n̠ʲ],[6] and further palatalized than Italian post-alveolars.[7] See Portuguese phonology
Mato-grossense cheio [ˈtɕej.jʊ] 'full'
Most Brazilian dialects petit-pois [pɪ̥̆ˈtɕi puˈa] 'green peas'
Carioca T-shirts [tsiˈɕɜxtɕɕ] 'T-shirts'
Some speakers distinto [dʑitɕˈɕĩtu̥] 'distinct'
Romanian Banat dialect[8] frate [frat͡ɕe][stress?] 'brother' One of the most distinct phonological features of the Banat dialect. Corresponds to [t][in which environments?] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology
Russian чуть [t͡ɕʉtʲ] 'narrowly' See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatian Ловћен / Lovćen [ɫǒ̞ʋt͡ɕe̞n] 'Lovćen' Merges with /t͡ʃ/ in most Croatian and some Bosnian accents. See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Swedish Finland kjol [t͡ɕuːl] 'skirt' See Swedish phonology
Thai[9] ฉัน [tɕʰǎn] 'I'
Uzbek[10] [example needed]
Vietnamese cha [t͡ɕa] 'father' See Vietnamese phonology
Yi ji [t͡ɕi˧] 'sour' Contrasts aspirated and unaspirated forms

See also



  • Grønnum, Nina (2005), Fonetik og fonologi, Almen og Dansk (3rd ed.), Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag, ISBN 87-500-3865-6 
  • Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (1): 103–107, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001191 
  • Pop, Sever (1938), Micul Atlas Linguistic Român, Muzeul Limbii Române Cluj 
  • Sjoberg, Andrée F. (1963), Uzbek Structural Grammar 
  • Tingsabadh, M.R. Kalaya; Abramson, Arthur S. (1993), "Thai", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 23 (1): 24–26, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004746 
  • Wheeler, Max W. (2005), The Phonology of Catalan, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-925814-7