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Voiceless labio-velar approximant

Voiceless labio-velar approximant
Template:Infobox IPA/format numbers
IPA number 169
Encoding
Entity (decimal) Template:Infobox IPA/format numbers
Unicode (hex) Template:Infobox IPA/format numbers
X-SAMPA W
Kirshenbaum w<vls>
Braille 25px25px
Template:Infobox IPA/format numbers

The voiceless labiovelar (labialized velar) approximant (traditionally called a voiceless labiovelar fricative) is a type of consonantal sound, used in spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ʍ (a rotated lowercase letter w) or .

[ʍ] is generally called a "fricative" for historical reasons, but in English, the language that the letter ʍ is primarily used for, it is a voiceless approximant, equivalent to [w̥] or [hw̥]. On rare occasions the symbol is appropriated for a labialized voiceless velar fricative, [xʷ], in other languages.

Features

Features of the voiceless labial-velar approximant:

Template:Voiceless short

  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Cornish whath, hwath [ʍæːθ] 'still', 'yet' Is spelled wh and hw in the Standard Written Form, as wh in Kernowek Standard, Unified Cornish, Unified Cornish Revised and Modern Cornish, and hw in Kernewek Kemmyn
English American Theater Standard[1] whine [ʍaɪ̯n] 'whine' Phonemically /hw/; contrasts with /w/. In General American[2] and New Zealand English[3][4] only some speakers maintain the distinction; in Britain, mostly heard in Irish and Scottish accents.[5] See English phonology and phonological history of wh.
Canadian Maritime
[citation needed]
Conservative Received Pronunciation[5]
Cultivated South African[6]
General American[2][7]
Irish[6][8][9] [ʍʌɪ̯n]
Scottish[6][10][11][12]
Southern American[13] [ʍäːn]
New Zealand[3][4][10][14] [ʍɑe̯n]
Gothic 𐍃𐌰𐌹𐍈𐌰 saiƕa [sɛːʍa] '(to) see' The Gothic alphabet has a special letter for this: 𐍈/ƕ
Hupa tł'iwh [t͡ɬʼiʍ] 'snake', 'rattlesnake' Contrasts with /w/
Nahuatl Cuauhtēmallān [kʷaʍteːmalːaːn] 'Guatemala' Allophone of /w/ before voiceless consonants
Slovene[15][16] vse [ʍˈsɛ]∼[uˈsɛ][17] 'everything' Allophone of /ʋ/ in the syllable onset before voiceless consonants.[15][16] Voiced [w] before voiced consonants. See Slovene phonology
Taiwanese 沃花 ak-hue [ʔak̚˥ʔ ʍeː˥˥] '(to) water flowers'

See also

References

Bibliography

  • Greenberg, Mark L. (2006), A Short Reference Grammar of Standard Slovene, Kansas: University of Kansas 
  • Labov, William; Ash, Sharon; Boberg, Charles (2006), The Atlas of North American English, Berlin: Mouton-de Gruyter, ISBN 3-11-016746-8 
  • Lass, Roger (2002), "South African English", in Mesthrie, Rajend, Language in South Africa, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 9780521791052 
  • McMahon, April (2002), An Introduction to English Phonology, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press Ltd, ISBN 0 7486 1252 1 
  • Rogers, Henry (2000), The Sounds of Language: An Introduction to Phonetics, Essex: Pearson Education Limited, ISBN 978-0-582-38182-7 
  • Skinner, Edith; Timothy Monich; Lilene Mansell (ed.) (1990). Speak with distinction (Second ed.). New York: Applause Theatre Book Publishers. ISBN 1-55783-047-9. 
  • Šuštaršič, Rastislav; Komar, Smiljana; Petek, Bojan (1999), "Slovene", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 135–139, ISBN 0-521-65236-7, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004874 
  • Wells, J.C. (1982a), Accents of English, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 
  • Wells, J.C. (1982b). Accents of English 3: Beyond the British Isles. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-28541-0. 
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