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Voiceless palatal lateral approximant

Voiceless palatal lateral approximant
IPA number 157 402A
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The voiceless palatal lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ʎ̥, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is L_0.

According to some scholars,[1][2] it is a phoneme distinct from its voiced counterpart /ʎ/ in some subdialects of Trøndersk, which is a dialect of Norwegian.[3]


Features of the voiceless palatal lateral approximant:

  • Its manner of articulation is approximant, which means it is produced by narrowing the vocal tract at the place of articulation, but not enough to produce a turbulent airstream.
  • Its place of articulation is palatal, which means it is articulated with the middle or back part of the tongue raised to the hard palate.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a lateral consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream over the sides of the tongue, rather than down the middle.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Faroese[4] kjálki [ˈt͡ʃʰaʎ̥t͡ʃɪ] 'jaw' Allophone of /l/.[4] See Faroese phonology
Norwegian Trondheim subdialect of Trøndersk[3] alt [ɑʎ̥c] 'everything, all' Allophone of /ʎ/ before /c/.[3] See Norwegian phonology
Some subdialects of Trøndersk[3] ? [tɑʎ̥] [translation needed] According to some scholars,[1][2] it is a phoneme that contrasts with /ʎ/ (as in /tɑʎ/ 'softwood'.)[3] See Norwegian phonology


  1. ^ a b Such as Vanvik (1979)
  2. ^ a b An example of a scholar disagreeing with this position is Scholtz (2009). On page 15, she provides a phoneme chart for Trøndersk, in which /ʎ/ is included. Under the phoneme chart she writes "Vanvik also lists /ʎ̥/ as an underlying phoneme, but that’s ridiculous :)." She provides no further explanation as to why it is ridiculous.
  3. ^ a b c d e Vanvik (1979:37)
  4. ^ a b Árnason (2011:115)