Adverts

Open Access Articles- Top Results for Voiceless uvular trill

Voiceless uvular trill

Voiceless uvular trill
ʀ̥
IPA number 123 402A
Encoding
Entity (decimal) Template:Infobox IPA/format numbers
Unicode (hex) Template:Infobox IPA/format numbers
X-SAMPA R\_0
Template:Infobox IPA/format numbers

Features

Features of the voiceless uvular trill:

  • Its manner of articulation is trill, which means it is produced by directing air over the articulator so that it vibrates.
  • Its place of articulation is uvular, which means it is articulated with the back of the tongue (the dorsum) at the uvula.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Afrikaans[1] goed [ʀ̥ut] 'good' Possible word-initial allophone of /χ/.[1] Some speakers realize it as velar [x].[1] See Afrikaans phonology
Baïnounk Gubëeher Some speakers[2] [example needed] Word-final allophone of /r/.
Dutch Belgian[3] door [doːʀ̥] 'through' Allophone of /r/ before voiceless consonants and word-finally for speakers with an uvular /r/.[3] Realization of /r/ varies considerably among dialects. See Dutch phonology
French Belgian[4] triste [t̪ʀ̥is̪t̪œ] 'sad' Allophone of /ʀ/ after voiceless consonants;[4] can be [χ] instead.[5] See French phonology
Spanish Ponce dialect[6] perro [ˈpe̞ʀ̥o̞] 'dog' This and [χ] are the primary realizations of /r/ in this dialect.[6] See Spanish phonology
Upper Saxon Chemnitz dialect[7] Rock [ʀ̥ɔkʰ] 'skirt' In free variation with [ʁ̞], [ʁ], [χ] and [q].[7] Doesn't occur in the coda.[7]

Voiceless uvular raised non-sonorant trill

Voiceless uvular raised non-sonorant trill
ʀ̝̊
χ͡ʀ̥
IPA number 123 402A 429
Encoding
Entity (decimal) Template:Infobox IPA/format numbers
Unicode (hex) Template:Infobox IPA/format numbers
X-SAMPA R\_0_r
Template:Infobox IPA/format numbers

Features

Features of the voiceless uvular raised non-sonorant trill:

  • Its manner of articulation is trill fricative, which means it's a trill and a non-sibilant fricative pronounced simultaneously.
  • Its place of articulation is uvular, which means it is articulated with the back of the tongue (the dorsum) at the uvula.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence

Uvular
Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Arabic Modern Standard[8] خضراء [x͡ʀ̥adˤraːʔ] 'green (f)' Voiceless velar fricative accompanied by a uvular trill.[8] Also reported to be simply a fricative (velar, post-velar, uvular, depending on the dialect).[9] See Arabic phonology
Dutch Belgian[10][11] broot [bʀ̝̊oːt] 'bread' Voiced when following a vowel.[12] Realization of /r/ varies considerably among dialects. See Dutch phonology
Hebrew[13] אוכל [ʔo̞χ͡ʀ̥e̞l] 'food' May be simply a fricative instead.[13] See Modern Hebrew phonology
Limburgish Hamont dialect[14] [jɔːʀ̝̊¹] 'year' Word-final allophone of /ʀ/,[14] can be [χ] instead.[14] See Hamont dialect phonology
Maastrichtian[15] waor [β̞ɒ̝ːʀ̝̊] 'was' Partially devoiced;[15][16] it's the coda allophone of /ʀ/.[15][16] It may be pre-uvular instead.[15][16]
Weert dialect[16] woor [β̞o̟ə̯ʀ̝̊]
Spanish Madrid[17] jazmín [x͡ʀ̥äθˈmin] 'jasmine' Voiceless velar fricative accompanied by a uvular trill.[17] Corresponds to [[[voiceless velar fricative#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.x]]
~ [[voiceless uvular fricative#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.χ]]
]
in standard European Spanish. See Spanish phonology
Wolof[18] [example needed] Usually transcribed /x/ or /χ/
Pre-uvular (post-velar)
Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Limburgish Maastrichtian[15] waor [β̞ɒ̝ːʀ̝̊˖] 'was' Partially devoiced;[15][16] it's the coda allophone of /ʀ/.[15][16] It may be uvular instead.[15][16]
Weert dialect[16] woor [β̞o̟ə̯ʀ̝̊˖]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c "John Wells's phonetic blog: velar or uvular?". 5 December 2011. Retrieved 30 April 2015. 
  2. ^ Cobbinah (2013), p. 166.
  3. ^ a b Verhoeven (2005), p. 245.
  4. ^ a b Demolin (2001), pp. 65, 67-68 and 70-71.
  5. ^ Demolin (2001), pp. 65, 67, and 71.
  6. ^ a b "ProQuest Document View - The Spanish of Ponce, Puerto Rico: A phonetic, phonological, and intonational analysis". 
  7. ^ a b c Khan & Weise (2013), p. 235.
  8. ^ a b Thelwall & Sa'Addedin (1999), pp. 51 and 53.
  9. ^ Watson (2002), pp. 17, 19-20, 35-36 and 38.
  10. ^ Tops (2009), pp. 25, 30-32, 63, 80-88, 97-100, 105, 118, 124-127, 134-135, 137-138 and 140-141.
  11. ^ Verhoeven (1994:?), cited in Tops (2009:22 and 83)
  12. ^ Tops (2009), p. 83.
  13. ^ a b Laufer (1999), p. 98.
  14. ^ a b c Verhoeven (2007), p. 220.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999), p. 156.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h Heijmans & Gussenhoven (1998), p. 108.
  17. ^ a b "Castilian Spanish - Madrid by Klaus Kohler". 
  18. ^ Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996), p. 167.

Bibliography

</dl>