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Voiceless velar affricate

Voiceless velar affricate
k͡x
Encoding
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The voiceless velar affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is k͡x.

Features

Features of the voiceless velar affricate:

  • Its manner of articulation is affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the airflow entirely, then allowing air flow through a constricted channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
  • Its place of articulation is velar, which means it is articulated with the back of the tongue at the soft palate.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
German Swiss dialects Sack [z̥ɑk͡x] 'bag' May be actually uvular [q͡χ] in some dialects.
Lakota lakhóta [laˈk͡xota] 'Lakota' Allophone of /kʰ/ before /a/, /ã/, /o/, /ĩ/, and /ũ/.
Navajo ashkii [aʃk͡xiː] 'boy' See Navajo phonology
!Xóõ [example needed] Used in pulmonic-contour clicks.

See also

References