Open Access Articles- Top Results for Voivodeship


This article is about historical and contemporary voivodships in various countries. For more on the divisions of modern and historical Poland, see Voivodeships of Poland.
Polish voivodships since 1999

A voivodship is the area administered by a voivod (Governor) in several countries of central and eastern Europe. Voivodships have existed since medieval times in Poland, Wallachia, Hungary, Lithuania, Latvia, Ukraine, Russia and Serbia. The administrative level of area (territory) of voivodship resembles that of a duchy in western medieval states, much as the title of voivod was equivalent to that of a duke. Other roughly equivalent titles and areas in medieval Eastern Europe included ban (bojan, vojin or bayan) and banate.

In a modern context, the word normally refers to one of the provinces (województwa) of Poland. Poland as of 2015 has 16 województwa.


A voi(e)vod(e) (literally, "leader of warriors" or "war leader", equivalent to the Latin "Dux Exercituum" and the German "Herzog") was originally a military commander who stood, in a state's structure, next to the ruler. Later the word came to denote an administrative official.

Words for "voivodship" in various languages include the Polish: województwo; the Romanian: voievodat; the Serbian: vojvodina (војводина), vojvodstvo (војводство) or vojvodovina (војводовина); the Hungarian: vajdaság; the Belarusian: ваяводства (vajаvodstva); the Lithuanian: vaivadija. Some of these words, or variants of them, may also be used in English.

Named for the word for "voivodship" is the autonomous Serbian province of Vojvodina.

Though the word "voivodeship" (other spellings are "voievodship" and "voivodship") appears in English dictionaries such as the OED and Webster's, it is not in common general usage, and voivodships in Poland and elsewhere are frequently referred to as "provinces".[1] Depending on context, historic voivodships may also be referred to as "duchies", "palatinates" (the Latin word "palatinatus" was used for a voivodship in Poland), "administrative districts" or "regions".

Current Polish Województwo

Since 1999, Poland has been divided into the following 16 voivodships or provinces (for more information see Administrative divisions of Poland and Voivodeships of Poland):

Historical voivodships

Outside Poland

File:Romania 1600-mod.png
Principality of Transylvania and the voivodships of Wallachia and Moldavia ruled by Mihai Viteazul in 1600

In the territory of modern Romania and Moldova, the regions of Wallachia, Moldavia and Transylvania were formerly voivodships.

Historical voivodships in the territory of modern Serbia include the Voivodship of Salan (9th–10th century), Voivodship of Sermon (11th century) and Voivodeship of Syrmia of Radoslav Čelnik (1527–1530). A voivodship called Serbian Vojvodina was established in 1848–1849; this was transformed into the Voivodship of Serbia and Banat of Temeschwar, a land within the Austro-Hungarian Empire from 1849 to 1860. This is the origin of the name of the present-day Serbian autonomous province of Vojvodina.

Historical voivodships in the territory of modern Romania and Serbia include the Voivodship of Glad (9th–10th century) and the Voivodship of Ahtum (11th century).

In Poland and its territories

For more information about the divisions of Polish lands in particular periods, see Administrative divisions of Poland ("Historical").

Voivodeships in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569–1795):

File:Poland administrative division 1922 literki.png
Voivodeships of Poland, 1921–1939

Voivodeships of Poland, 1921–1939:

Voivodeships of Poland, 1945–1975:

Voivodeships of Poland, 1975–1998:


  1. ^ "Jednostki podziału administracyjnego Polski tłumaczymy tak: województwo—province..." ("Polish administrative units are translated as follows: województwoprovince..."). Arkadiusz Belczyk,"Tłumaczenie polskich nazw geograficznych na język angielski" ("Translation of Polish Geographical Names into English"), 2002-2006. For examples see New Provinces of Poland (1998); Map of Poland; English names of Polish provinces.