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Volkswagen Golf

Not to be confused with Volkswagen Gol.

Volkswagen Golf
Manufacturer Volkswagen
Also called Volkswagen Rabbit
Volkswagen Caribe
Volkswagen Cabrio
Production 1974–present
Body and chassis
Class Compact car
Body style 5-door hatchback
3-door hatchback
5-door Variant
2-door Cabriolet
5-door Sportsvan

Mk1 to Mk6 Volkswagen Group A platform

Mk7 Volkswagen Group MQB platform
Length 2-door: 4211 mm
Width 2-door: 1760 mm
Predecessor Volkswagen Beetle

The Volkswagen Golf is a small family car produced by the German manufacturer Volkswagen since 1974, marketed worldwide across seven generations, in various body configurations and under various nameplates – as the Volkswagen Rabbit in the United States and Canada (Mk1 and Mk5), and as the Volkswagen Caribe in Mexico (Mk1).

The original Golf Mk1 was a front-wheel drive, front-engined replacement for the air-cooled, rear-engined, rear-wheel drive Volkswagen Beetle. Historically, the Golf is Volkswagen's best-selling model and the world's second best-selling model, with more than 29 million built by 2012.[1]

Most production of the Golf was initially in the 3-door hatchback style.[2] Other variants include a 5-door hatchback, station wagon (Variant, from 1993), convertible (Cabriolet and Cabrio, 1979–2002, 2011–present), and a Golf-derived notchback sedan, variously called Volkswagen Jetta, Volkswagen Vento (from 1992) or Volkswagen Bora (from 1999). The cars have filled many market segments, from basic personal cars, to high-performance hot hatches.

The Volkswagen Golf has won many awards throughout its history. The Volkswagen Golf won the World Car of the Year in 2009 with the Volkswagen Golf Mk6 and in 2013 with the Volkswagen Golf Mk7. Every generation of Golf has been a runner-up in the European Car of the Year awards. The Golf is one of only two cars, the other being the Renault Clio, to have been voted European Car of the Year twice, in 1992 and 2013.[3] The Volkswagen Golf has made the Car and Driver annual 10 Best list multiple times.

Nameplate etymology

Despite numerous sources suggesting that the Golf nameplate is derived from the German word for Gulf Stream[4] — during a period in its history when VW named vehicles after prominent winds or currents (as with the Passat (after the German word for Trade wind), Jetta (after the Jet stream), Bora (after Bora) and Scirocco (after Sirocco)[5]) or that "Golf" is a sport theme-related name as shared with the Polo and Derby— a 2013 report by former VW advertising copywriter Bertel Schmitt, says that — after consulting knowledgeable VW sources including Dr. Carl Hahn, former Volkswagen of America Chief and WP Schmidt, former sales chief at Volkswagen — no conclusive evidence suggests that Volkswagen employed a naming theme for its then new front-drive, water-cooled vehicles; nor that the names trace etymologically to any particular theme; nor that any naming system "was ever announced, either officially or confidentially."[6]

First generation (A1, Typ 17; 1974–1993)

Volkswagen Golf Mk1 (17)
File:Vw golf 1 v sst.jpg
Production 1974–1993
Body and chassis
Platform Volkswagen Group A1 platform
Related Volkswagen Jetta Mk1
Volkswagen Scirocco Mk1 & Mk2
Main article: Volkswagen Golf Mk1

In May 1974,[7] Volkswagen presented the first-generation Golf as a modern front-wheel-drive, long-range replacement for the Volkswagen Beetle. Later Golf variations included the Golf GTI "hot hatch" (introduced in June 1976), a diesel-powered version (from September 1976), the Jetta notchback saloon version (from October 1979), the Volkswagen Golf Cabriolet (from January 1980) and a Golf-based pickup, the Volkswagen Caddy.

The Golf Mk1 was sold as the Volkswagen Rabbit in the United States and Canada and as the Volkswagen Caribe in Mexico.

A facelifted version of the Golf Mk1 was produced in South Africa as the Citi Golf from 1984 to 2009.[8]

Second generation (A2, Typ 1G; 1983–1992)

Volkswagen Golf Mk2 (1G)
File:VW Golf II front 20080206.jpg
Production 1983–1992
Body and chassis
Platform Volkswagen Group A2 platform
Related Volkswagen Jetta Mk2
Volkswagen Corrado
SEAT Toledo Mk1
Main article: Volkswagen Golf Mk2

September 1983 saw the introduction of the second-generation Golf Mk2 that grew slightly in terms of wheelbase, exterior and interior dimensions, while retaining, in a more rounded form, the Mk1's overall look. Although it was available on the home market and indeed most other left-hand drive markets by the end of 1983, it was not launched onto the British market until March 1984. The original Golf had been one of the few front-wheel drive hatchbacks sold in Britain and indeed anywhere else on its arrival a decade earlier; by this stage, however, virtually every major manufacturer was producing a Golf-like hatchback.

In 1985, the first Golfs with four-wheel-drive (Golf syncro) went on sale with the same Syncro four-wheel-drive system being employed on the supercharged G60 models, exclusively released on the continent in 1989 with Script error: No such module "convert". and ABS braking.

A Mk2-based second generation Jetta was unveiled in January 1984. There was no Mk2-based cabriolet model; instead, the Mk1 Cabriolet was continued over the Mk2's entire production run.

Third generation (A3, Typ 1H; 1991–2002)

Volkswagen Golf Mk3 (1H)
File:1996-1998 Volkswagen Golf (1H) CL 5-door hatchback 03.jpg
Production 1991–2002
Body and chassis
Platform Volkswagen Group A3 platform
Related Volkswagen Vento
Main article: Volkswagen Golf Mk3

The third-generation Golf Mk3 made its home-market début in August 1991 and again grew slightly in comparison with its immediate predecessor, while its wheelbase remained unchanged.

New engines included the first Turbocharged Direct Injection (TDI) diesel engine in a Golf, and a narrow-angle 2.8 L VR6 engine. The VR6-engined version accelerated from Script error: No such module "convert". in 7.1 seconds, posting a record 15.5-second Script error: No such module "convert". time at Script error: No such module "convert"..[citation needed] EPA estimate Script error: No such module "convert". (city) or Script error: No such module "convert". (highway), with Script error: No such module "convert". per tank (city) and Script error: No such module "convert". per tank (highway). For the first time ever, a Golf estate (Golf Variant) joined the line-up in September 1993 (although most markets did not receive this model until early 1994). At the same time, a completely new Mk3-derived Cabriolet was introduced, replacing the 13-year-old Mk1-based version with a body style similar to that of the Mk3 Golf from 1994 to early 1999. The Mk3 Golf Cabrio received a Mk4-style facelift for the late 1999 model and was continued until 2002. The notchback version, called VW Vento (or Jetta in North America), was presented in January, 1992.

It was European Car of the Year for 1992, ahead of PSA's new ZX model and GM's new Astra model.

The Mk3 continued to be sold until 1999 in the United States, Canada and parts of South America, also in Mexico as a special edition called "Mi" (Golf CL 4-door, added A/C, special interiors, OEM black tinted rear stop lights, and ABS, no OEM radio) ("Mi" ("i" in red) stands for Multipoint Injection and the 1.8 L engine was upgraded to 2.0).

Body badge emblems included: GL, CL, GLI, GTI, G60, VR6, 8V, and 16V

Fourth generation (A4, Typ 1J; 1997–2010)

Volkswagen Golf Mk4 (1J)
File:VW Golf IV front 20071205.jpg
Production 1997–2010
Body and chassis
Platform Volkswagen Group A4 (PQ34) platform
Related Volkswagen Bora
Volkswagen Lavida
Audi A3 Mk1
Audi TT Mk1
SEAT León Mk1
SEAT Toledo Mk2
Škoda Octavia Mk1
Main article: Volkswagen Golf Mk4

The Golf Mk4 was first introduced in August 1997, followed by a notchback version (VW Bora or, in North America, again VW Jetta) in August 1998 and a new Golf Variant (estate) in March 1999. There was no Mk4-derived Cabriolet, although the Mk3 Cabriolet received a facelift in late 1999 that comprised bumpers, grill and headlights similar to those of the Mark 4 models.

New high-performance models included the 3.2 L VR6-engined four-wheel-drive Golf "R32" introduced in 2002, its predecessor the 2.8 L VR6-engined "Golf V6 4Motion" (succeeding the 2.9 L Mk3 "Golf VR6 Syncro"), as well as use of the famous 1.8T (turbo) 4-cylinder used in various Volkswagen Group models.

As of 2008, certain variants of the Golf/Bora Mk4 were still in production in Brazil, China, and Mexico. Revised versions of the Mk4 were sold in Canada marketed as the Golf City and Jetta City from 2007 to 2010. The two models were VW Canada's entry-level offerings. They received a significant freshening for the 2008 model year, including revised headlamps, taillamps, front and rear fascias, sound systems, and wheels. Both models were offered only with the 2.0 L, 8-valve SOHC four-cylinder gasoline engine, rated at Script error: No such module "convert".. They were the only entry-level offerings with an optional six-speed automatic. Production of the European variant of the Golf Mk4 ceased at the end of the 2003 model year. Production of the U.S version ended in 2006.

When the Chinese market Bora received a July 2006 facelift, the Golf did too, becoming the "Bora HS" in the process.

The MK4's popularity and low cost has allowed it to remain in production in several countries, including Brazil and Argentina, with minor cosmetic changes.

Fifth generation (A5, Typ 1K; (2003–2009)

Volkswagen Golf Mk5 (1K)
File:2004-2007 Volkswagen Golf (1K) Sportline 2.0 TDI 5-door hatchback 01.jpg
Production 2003–2009
Body and chassis
Platform Volkswagen Group A5 (PQ35) platform
Related Volkswagen Jetta Mk5
Volkswagen Eos
Volkswagen Scirocco Mk3
Audi A3 Mk2
SEAT León Mk2
SEAT Toledo Mk3
SEAT Altea
Škoda Octavia Mk2
Main article: Volkswagen Golf Mk5

The Golf Mk5 was introduced in Europe in 2003. In North America, Volkswagen brought back the Rabbit nameplate when it introduced the vehicle in 2006. In Canada, the Golf is still the prevalent nameplate of the fifth generation (though Rabbit and Golf have both been used historically). The North American base model is powered by a 2.5 L five-cylinder engine, which produced Script error: No such module "convert". in 2006 and 2007, but was upped to Script error: No such module "convert". in the later models. A GTI version is powered by a turbocharged version of the 2.0 TFSI engine, producing Script error: No such module "convert"..

Volkswagen also introduced the "Fast" marketing idea for the US market, "dedicated to the 'fast' that lives inside every driver". Drivers who purchased new GTI Mk5s from a dealership were shipped a model of said Fast, which employs GTI-like features. The GTI version is the only version on sale in Mexico.

The saloon/sedan version, again called Volkswagen Jetta in most markets, is assembled in Germany, South Africa, as well as Mexico. (In Mexico this car is known as Bora.) It was followed in 2004 by a new Golf Variant. The front ends of the car are the same, with the only difference being that the GLI is a sedan, while the GTI is a hatchback.

Later models of the Mk5 introduced the 1.4 TSI turbocharged petrol engine with front-wheel drive.

In a comparison test conducted by Car and Driver Magazine, the Volkswagen Rabbit S was named the winner among eight small cars. While it was praised for its excellent driving position, fine instruments, and strong engine, it was criticized for having high levels of road noise, uncomfortable seats, and poor fuel economy. Though, the final verdict stated, "This one is all about driving pleasure, so it wins." The Rabbit also placed first in their final comparison in December 2006.

The Golf Plus was also introduced in 2004. This was a slightly larger version of the Golf Mk5 with a higher roofline.

VW Golf GTI W12

In 2007, VW built a concept car based on the Golf Mk5 featuring a 6.0 litre W12 engine from the Volkswagen Phaeton. The engine was twin-turbocharged and tuned to provide an extra 200 bhp, giving 641 bhp. Volkswagen claimed that the car could accelerate from 0–100 km/h (0-62 mph) in 3.7 seconds. The Golf GTI W12 was rear wheel drive, using a six-speed automatic gearbox. The body was extensively modified to carry the engine, widened and given a rear spoiler to improve handling. The W12 engine was placed in the middle of the car to improve the car's grip.[9]

Sixth generation (A6, Typ 5K; 2008–present)

Volkswagen Golf Mk6 (5K)
File:2009-2011 Volkswagen Golf (5K) 118TSI Comfortline 5-door hatchback (2011-11-08) 01.jpg
Production 2008-present
Body and chassis
Platform Volkswagen Group A5 (PQ35) platform
Related Volkswagen Jetta Mk6
Volkswagen Scirocco Mk3
Audi A3 Mk2
SEAT León Mk2
SEAT Toledo Mk3
SEAT Altea
Main article: Volkswagen Golf Mk6

Volkswagen based the Golf Mk6 on the existing PQ35 platform from the Golf Mk5.[10] This vehicle was debuted at the 2008 Paris Motor Show.[11]

The Mk6 Golf was designed by Volkswagen's chief designer Walter de'Silva. The design is said to be more aerodynamic, helping fuel efficiency, and is quieter than its predecessor. Following criticism of the downgraded interior trim quality of the Mk5 Golf in comparison to the Mk4, Volkswagen opted to overhaul the interior to match the quality with the Mk4 Golf, while maintaining the same user friendliness from the Mk5. The car is also cheaper to build than its predecessor; Volkswagen claims it consequently will be able to pass these savings on to the customer.[12] The MK6 Jetta was released in Mexico in mid-2010, and by late 2011 will be available in all markets around the globe. Turbocharged Direct Injection diesel engines which use the common rail direct injection will replace the longstanding Pumpe/Düse (PD) Unit Injector system. New on the Golf, is the optional Volkswagen Adaptive Chassis Control (not available in the North American market), which allows the driver to select between 'normal', 'comfort' and 'sports' modes, which will vary the suspension, steering and accelerator behavior accordingly.[13]

The Mk6 Golf is available with both 5- and 6-speed manual transmission, and 6- or 7-speed DSG (Dual Clutch) transmission options. In America, the MK5 version was originally sold as the Rabbit from 2006-2009. In 2010, Volkswagen brought back the Golf nameplate with the mid-cycle refresh. With it brought a Script error: No such module "convert"., 2.5 liter I-5 with 240 N·m (177 lb·ft) of torque and a 2.0 liter, Script error: No such module "convert". turbocharged I-4 clean diesel engine that generates 320 N·m (236 lb·ft) of torque. The GTI version is equipped with a Script error: No such module "convert". turbocharged I-4 TSI gas engine while the Golf R has a Script error: No such module "convert". turbocharged TFSI I-4 engine. All three engines can be paired with a DSG dual-clutch 6-speed automatic or 6-speed manual transmission in either a 3- or 5-door configuration.

The car was introduced for sale in the UK in January 2009,[14] and in North America in October 2009 as the 2010 Golf, rather than Rabbit.[15] The Mk6 also reintroduced a diesel engine option to the North American market.[16]

The Volkswagen Golf Mk6 is a 2012 IIHS Top Safety Pick.[17]

Seventh generation (A7, Typ 5G; 2012–present)

Volkswagen Golf Mk7 (5G)
File:VW Golf 1.6 TDI BlueMotion Technology Comfortline (VII) – Frontansicht, 31. Dezember 2012, Düsseldorf.jpg
Production 2012–present
Body and chassis
Platform Volkswagen Group MQB platform
Related Audi A3 Mk3
SEAT León Mk3
Škoda Octavia Mk3
Volkswagen Passat Mk8
Main article: Volkswagen Golf Mk7

The seventh-generation Golf had its début in late 2012 at the Paris Motor Show.[18]

The Golf VII, Typ 5G[19] uses the new MQB platform, shared with the third-generation Audi A3, SEAT León and Škoda Octavia. It is slightly larger than the Mk6 while managing to be approximately 100 kg lighter, depending on engine choice. The GTI will offer a Script error: No such module "convert". turbocharged 2.0 litre four-cylinder with an available performance pack to raise the output to 227 bhp.[20] The Golf R now has a Script error: No such module "convert". turbocharged 2.0 litre four-cylinder with 4-Motion 4WD

The Golf line is available in all the relevant drive systems: the Golf TSI, including GTI, is petrol-powered; Golf TDI, including GTD, is diesel-powered; the Golf TGI is powered by compressed natural gas (CNG); the e-Golf is powered by electricity; and the Golf GTE is a plug-in hybrid. The use of a modular transverse matrix assembly kit enables the manufacturing of Golf models with gasoline, diesel, natural gas, electric and hybrid drives from bumper to bumper at Volkswagen factories.[21]

Electric versions

The VW Golf has had several generations made into electric CityStromer models. The first of these was in the 1970s, when VW took a standard Golf Mk1 and converted it to electric power. By the time the Golf Mk2 came into production a limited number of electric Golfs were made, using lead–acid battery packs and a custom-made motor and controller[citation needed]. VW continued with the production of limited numbers of CityStromer electric cars with the introduction of the Golf Mk3. The electric CityStromer Mk3 included a Siemens-based AC drive system, and lead–acid battery packs. They had a maximum speed of Script error: No such module "convert". and a range of approximately Script error: No such module "convert"..[22] With a few exceptions, only left-hand drive Golfs were converted by VW into Citystromer models. These vehicles are still used today and have popularity in mainland Europe with only a few present in Great Britain. Only two right-hand drive Mk2 CityStromers were built for the UK market and it is believed only one remains today. It is owned by EV advocate and broadcaster Nikki Gordon-Bloomfield, host of Transport Evolved.[23]

Golf Variant Twin Drive

As part of the "Fleet study in electric mobility" project that began in 2008, VW developed 20 Golf Variant twinDRIVE plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. These research vehicles have an all-electric range of Script error: No such module "convert". and the internal combustion engine provides for a total range of Script error: No such module "convert".. The plug-in hybrid drive of the Golf Variant twinDRIVE is equipped with either an 11.2 kWh or a 13.2 kWh lithium-ion battery pack, as Volkswagen is testing packs from two vendors. Ten vehicles are equipped with batteries from the American-German manufacturer GAIA with cathode type nickel cobalt aluminium dioxide (NCA). The other ten are powered by lithium-ion batteries with nickel manganese cobalt (NMC) cathodes from the Korean-German joint venture SB LiMotive (Samsung and Bosch). These 10 vehicles have been in use since early 2011. Both battery systems offer high power and energy density. They each weigh about 150 kg. The gasoline engine is used to support the electric heating system when outdoor temperatures are low.[24]

Using guidelines for determining the fuel consumption of plug-in hybrids, VW estimates a fuel consumption of 2.1 L/100 km (112 mpg US), which is equivalent to 49 g/km CO2. When the battery is fully charged, the Golf Variant twinDRIVE is design to maximize the share of pure electrical energy used for driving, and only when longer distances are driven does the share of supplemental gasoline fuel increase. Top speed of the car is Script error: No such module "convert". and it accelerates to 100 km/h in under 12 seconds. When operated in pure electric mode, the Golf Variant twinDRIVE can reach a top speed of Script error: No such module "convert"..[24]

The production version was expected to be based on Mk6 Golf featuring a 1.5 L turbodiesel engine and electric motor, with estimated arrival date of 2015.[25] A SEAT León prototype with the Twin Drive system was also under development.[citation needed]

Volkswagen e-Golf

The Golf blue-e-motion concept has a range of Script error: No such module "convert"..[26] Volkswagen scheduled a field testing program with 500 units to begin in 2011.[27][28] The first 10 units began field testing in Wolfsburg in May 2011.[29] A second batch of 80 test cars began testing in June 2011 in Berlin, Hannover and Wolfsburg.[30] In February 2012, the first e-Golf, as the production version was renamed, was delivered in Belmont, California. A total of 20 e-Golfs will be allocated to the U.S. field testing program.[31]

The Golf blue-emotion concept has a 26.5 kWh lithium-ion battery pack and is powered by an 85 kW electric motor which drives the front wheels through a single speed transmission. It will accelerate to Script error: No such module "convert". in 11.8 seconds and have a top speed of Script error: No such module "convert"..[30] Paddle shifters are used to adjust the amount of regenerative braking. The vehicle's PRNDL stick has an additional 'B' mode as found on some other electric vehicles to set the regenerative braking effort to the maximum for sustained downhill travelling.[citation needed]

Production version

The production version of the 2015 Volkswagen e-Golf was unveiled at the 2013 Frankfurt Motor Show.[32] According to VW the e-Golf has a practical all-electric range of Script error: No such module "convert"., with an official NEDC cycle of Script error: No such module "convert"., and the winter range is expected to be Script error: No such module "convert"..[33] The 2015 e-Golf has an official EPA rated all-electric range of Script error: No such module "convert"., and a combined fuel economy of 116 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (MPGe) for an energy consumption of 29 kW-hrs/100 mi. The EPA rating for city driving is 126 MPGe and 105 MPGe in highway.[34] Production of vehicles destined for retail customers began in March 2014.[35]

Markets and sales

On 14 February 2014, Volkswagen launched sales of the e-Golf in Germany, with pricing starting at €34,900 (~US$47,800).[33] On 11 March 2014, Volkswagen opened ordering for the e-Golf in the UK, and announced pricing of £30,845.[36] UK deliveries began at the end of June.[37]

In Norway, the e-Golf became available for pre-order on 25 February 2014 for delivery in June 2014. Over 1,300 cars were ordered that same day.[38] By 3 March 2014, nearly 2,000 cars had been pre-ordered.[39] Prices range from NOK 251,800 (~US$42,000) for the basic model to NOK 302,000 (~US$50,000) with all available options,[40] comparable to the cheapest petrol and diesel models.[41] The basic package includes equipment which is optional in other countries, such as a DAB+ radio receiver, heated front seats and a heated windshield.[citation needed] The VW e-Golf was the top selling plug-in electric car in July 2014 with 391 units sold and representing 34.4% of the Golf nameplate sales (1,136), which was Norway's top selling new car that month.[42][43] The e-Golf was again the top selling electric car in August 2014 with 467 units sold, representing 43.4% of the Golf nameplate sales that month (1,075). In two months and a half a total of 925 Volkswagen e-Golf cars have been sold in Norway, surpassing initial Tesla Model S sales which delivered 805 units during its first two months in the Norwegian market.[44][45] A total of 1,358 units have been sold in Europe through August 2014.[46]

In April 2014, Volkswagen announced that the U.S. version of the 2015 e-Golf would not have a liquid-cooled battery pack because strict testing showed high ambient temperatures did not affect battery performance.[47] U.S sales were slated to start on selected markets in November 2014 at a price for the SEL Premium model starting at US$35,445 before any applicable government incentives, plus US$820 destination and delivery.[48] However, the first delivery of an e-Golf actually happened on 31 October in California.[49] During the month of November 2014, the first full month of sales of the vehicle, Volkswagen of America sold 119 units.[50] In January 2015, the e-Golf started to show up at dealerships throughout the Northeast.[51]

Volkswagen Golf GTE

The Golf GTE is a plug-in hybrid version of the Golf hatchback unveiled at the 2014 Geneva Motor Show. The Golf GTE shares the basic powertrain hardware with the Audi A3 Sportback e-tron but the software controls are different.[52] The Golf GTE also shares the same plug-in hybrid powertrain with the Volkswagen Passat GTE, but the Passat has a larger 9.9 kWh Li-ion battery pack.[53]

The GTE is powered by a 1.4 liter (148 hp, 110 kW) TSI direct-injection gasoline engine combined with a 75 kW electric motor powered by an 8.8 kWh lithium-ion battery, enabling the plug-in hybrid to deliver an all-electric range of Script error: No such module "convert". and a total range of Script error: No such module "convert".. The all-electric mode can be activated at the push of a button. Under the New European Driving Cycle, combined fuel economy is Script error: No such module "convert". equivalent. The Golf GTE has a top speed of Script error: No such module "convert". and accelerates from Script error: No such module "convert". in 7.6 seconds.[54]

The GTE release to retail customers was scheduled for the fourth quarter of 2014.[21] The first units were registered in Germany in August 2014.[55] According to JATO Dynamics, a total of 321 units have been registered worldwide through September 2014,[56] of which, 89 units were registered in Germany.[57]


In auto racing, APR Motorsport has led two MKV VW GTI's to victory in the Grand-Am KONI Sports Car Challenge Street Tuner (ST) class.

Awards and recognition

  • The Golf Mk7 was named "The All The Car You'll Ever Need Car of the Year 2012" by Top Gear (magazine).
  • The Golf Mk7 won the 2013 European Car of the Year award for the second time.[58][61]
  • Volkswagen Golf has been selected as the Car of the Year Japan 2013-2014, becoming the first imported car to win the award created in 1980.

See also


  1. ^ Gareth Kent (30 March 2007). "VW Golf build passes 25 million". Retrieved 11 March 2008. 
  2. ^ Figures for 1974 to 1987: 4.7 million 3-door models, 2.55 million 5-doors, according to: Oswald, Werner (2001). Deutsche Autos 1945–1990, vol.3. Stuttgart: Motorbuch Verlag. pp. 86–87. ISBN 3-613-02116-1. 
  3. ^ "Previous Winners" (in español). Car of the Year. Retrieved 2011-11-09. 
  4. ^
  5. ^
    • White, John R. (1 April 1990), "Volkswagen Has Another Car Named For The Wind -- And It's A Fresh Breeze", Boston Globe: A.69, VW likes to name things after wind. Remember Scirocco? That was a car named for a hot desert wind. Passat is more practical; in German it means trade wind. And, if there's anything Volkswagen needs, it's a fresh breeze in the trade department. 
    • Jeannet, Jean-Pierre; Hennessey, Hubert D. (1988), International marketing management: strategies and cases, Houghton Mifflin, p. 321, ISBN 978-0-395-35675-3, This brought about Golf (the German word for the Gulf Wind), Scirocco (the Italian word for a hot wind that brings desert dust from the Libyan desert to Italy), and Passat (the German word for trade wind). 
    • Kiley, David (13 March 2008), "One World, One Car, One Name;The Ford Fiesta, after flopping in the U.S. in the '70s and selling well in Europe ever since, is set to go global", Business Week, retrieved 2011-11-02, There was the Bora, which is also the wind that blows north by northeast across the Adriatic Sea. After complaints from dealers that Bora sounded "boring," VW eventually renamed the car the Jetta (as in Jet Stream) in the U.S. More recently, the automaker came out with the Touareg, which is also a nomadic African tribe that used to follow a certain wind pattern. 
  6. ^ "Inside The Industry: TTAC Finds The Missing Etymology Of Passat, Golf, Scirocco, Polo". The Truth About Cars, Bertel Schmitt, 24 May 2013. 
  7. ^ All dates for Mk1 to Mk4 according to: Oswald, Werner (2001). Deutsche Autos 1945–1990, vol.3. Stuttgart: Motorbuch Verlag. pp. 72–137. ISBN 3-613-02116-1.  and Kittler, Eberhard (2001). Deutsche Autos seit 1990, vol.5 (in German). Stuttgart: Motorbuch Verlag. pp. 266–313. ISBN 3-613-02128-5. 
  8. ^ "Goodbye Citi Golf | TopCar". 3 November 2009. Archived from the original on 19 March 2014. Retrieved 19 March 2014. 
  9. ^ Ian Dickson (18 May 2007). "Revealed: 641bhp VW Golf GTi". Retrieved 2012-10-20. 
  10. ^ Wall Street Journal VW to Cut Costs to Produce Golf 9 June 2008; pg B2
  11. ^ "Erste Fotos vom VW Golf VI – Das ist der neue Golf – News". Retrieved 12 October 2009. 
  12. ^ "New VW Golf revealed – Introduction – Car and Car-Buying News – What Car?". 6 August 2008. Retrieved 12 October 2009. 
  13. ^ Tan, Paul. "6th Generation Volkswagen Golf Details and Photos". Retrieved 15 October 2010. 
  14. ^ "". Retrieved 15 October 2010. 
  15. ^ Garrett J (27 March 2009). "VW kills Rabbit name, again". New York Times. Retrieved 27 March 2009. 
  16. ^ "2010 VW Golf TDI Review". 
  17. ^ "Awards & Accolades". 
  18. ^ "Paris 2012: the new Golf GTI - BBC Top Gear". 27 Sep 2012. Retrieved 2012-09-29. 
  19. ^ Volkswagen Elektronischer Teilekatalog (in German) (Lex-Com GmbH) (931)  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  20. ^ Vijayenthiran, Viknesh (2012-09-27). "2014 Volkswagen Golf GTI Previewed In Paris By Concept". Retrieved 2013-02-08. 
  21. ^ a b VW Media (2014-02-21). "Volkswagen to introduce Golf plug-in hybrid at Geneva; first deliveries in autumn". Green Car Congress. Retrieved 2014-02-21. 
  22. ^ "CitySTROMer". Retrieved 15 October 2010. 
  23. ^ The CityStromer EV on PositiveTV
  24. ^ a b "Volkswagen presents status of fleet study in electromobility; latest generation of twïnDRIVE plug-in hybrid". Green Car Congress. 2011-06-29. Retrieved 2011-06-30. 
  25. ^ Vijayenthiran, Viknesh (4 September 2008). "VW Twin Drive plug-in hybrids not due until 2015". Retrieved 15 October 2010. 
  26. ^ "VW provides update with a few more technical details on Golf blue-e-motion EV; market debut in 2014". Green Car Congress. 2010-11-09. Retrieved 2011-06-27. 
  27. ^ Andrew Peterson (22 April 2010). "Volkswagen's First Electric Car Will Be Based on 2013 Golf". Automobiles Magazine. Retrieved 26 April 2010. 
  28. ^ "Volkswagen announces electrification plan, 500 Golf EVs in 2011". AutoblogGreen. 1 March 2010. Retrieved 26 April 2010. 
  29. ^ "Test fleet of the Golf blue-e-motion launched". TechVehi. 2011-05-11. Retrieved 2011-06-27. 
  30. ^ a b David Jolley (2011-06-16). "Volkswagen preps the Golf EV for 2013 launch". AutoWeek. 
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External links

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