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Wat

For other uses, see Wat (disambiguation).
Cambodian pagodas: Left: Wat Ko, Right: Wat Peapat

A wat (Thai: วัด wat Lao: ວັດ vad, Khmer: វត្ត wōat) is a monastery-temple in Thailand, Cambodia or Laos. Template:Citation needed span

Introduction

Strictly speaking a wat is a Buddhist sacred precinct with a vihara (quarters for bhikkhus), a temple, an edifice housing a large image of Buddha and a structure for lessons. A site without a minimum of three resident bhikkhus cannot correctly be described as a wat although the term is frequently used more loosely, even for ruins of ancient temples. As a transitive or intransitive verb, wat means to measure, to take measurements; compare templum, from which temple derives, having the same root as template.

In everyday language in Thailand, a wat is any place of worship except a mosque (Thai สุเหร่า surao or มัสยิด masjid; a mosque may also be described as โบสถ์ของอิสลาม - bot khong itsalam, literally "Islam church") or a synagogue (Thai สุเหร่ายิว - surao yiw). Thus a wat chin is a Chinese temple (either Buddhist or Taoist), wat khaek is a Hindu temple and wat khrit or wat farang is a Christian church, though Thai โบสถ์ (โบสถ์ bot) may be used descriptively as with mosques.

In Cambodia, a wat is used to refer to all kinds of places of worship. Technically, wat generally refers to a Buddhist place of worship, but the technical term is វត្តពុទ្ធសាសនា wat putthasasana. A Christian church can be referred as វិហារយេស៊ូ vihear Yesaou or "Jesus vihear". Angkor Wat អង្គរវត្ត means "city of temples".

Types

File:Bangkok wat suthat 001.JPG
The facade to the Phra Viharn Luang (meeting hall) at Wat Suthat, one of the most important Buddhist temples in Bangkok, Thailand

According to Thai law, Thai Buddhist temples are of two types:

  • Wat (วัด; wat) are temples which are have been endorsed by the state and have been granted wisungkhamasima (วิสุงคามสีมา), or the land for establishing central hall, by the king. These temples are divided into:[1]
    • Royal temples (พระอารามหลวง; phra aram luang), established or patronised by the king or his family members.
    • Private temples (วัดราษฎร์; wat rat), established by private citizens. Despite the term "private", private temples are opened to the public and are sites of public religious activities also.
  • Samnak song (สำนักสงฆ์; samnak song) are temples without state endorsement and wisungkhamasima.

Structure

A typical Buddhist wat consists of the following buildings:

  • chaidei or chedi (Khmer ចេតិយ), (Thai เจดีย์) (from Sanskrit: chaitya, temple) - usually conical or bell-shaped buildings, often containing relics of Buddha
  • vihear (Khmer វិហារ),wihan (Thai วิหาร) from Sanskrit: vihara) - a meeting and prayer room
  • mondop (Thai มณฑป) (from Sanskrit: Mandapa) - a usually open, square building with four arches and a pyramidal roof, used to worship religious texts or objects
  • sala (Khmer សាលា), (Thai ศาลา) (from Sanskrit: Shala - School, from an earlier meaning of shelter) - a pavilion for relaxation or miscellaneous activities
  • bot โบสถ์ or ubosoth อุโบสถ์ (from Pali uposatha) - the holiest prayer room, also called the "ordination hall" as it is where new monks take their vows. Architecturally it is similar to the vihara; the main differences are the eight cornerstones placed around the bot to ward off evil. The bot is usually more decorated than the viharn.
  • bibiloteca (Thai หอไตร) - Tripitaka library where Buddhist scriptures are kept
  • drum tower (Thai หอกลอง)
  • bell tower (Thai หอระฆัง)
  • multipurpose hall (Thai: ศาลาการเปรียญ, study hall) is a building in a wat. Template:Citation needed span

The living quarters of the monks, including the กุฏิ (pronounced kut, kutti or kuti - monk cells) are separated from the sacred buildings.

The roofs of Thai temples are often adorned with chofahs.

Examples

Some well-known wats include:

Cambodia

Laos

Thailand

Malaysia

Gallery

References

  1. ราชกิจจานุเบกษา, ประกาศกระทรวงธรรมการ แผนกกรมสังฆการี เรื่อง จัดระเบียบพระอารามหลวง, เล่ม ๓๒, ตอน ๐ ก, ๓ ตุลาคม พ.ศ.๒๔๕๘, หน้า ๒๘๔

See also

Template:Religion in Thailand