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William Howard Hoople

File:WH Hoople.jpg
William Howard Hoople

William Howard Hoople (August 6, 1868 – September 29, 1922) was an American businessman and religious figure. He was a prominent leader of the American Holiness movement; the co-founder of the Association of Pentecostal Churches of America, one of the antecedent groups that merged to create the Church of the Nazarene; rescue mission organizer; an ordained minister in the Church of the Nazarene, and first superintendent of the New York District of the Church of the Nazarene; YMCA worker; baritone gospel singer; successful businessman and investor; and inventor.

Early years

Family background

Hoople was born in Herkimer, New York, on August 6, 1868,[1] the oldest child and only son of Canadian immigrants William Gordon Hoople (born April 3, 1841 in Dickinson's Landing, Eastern District, Upper Canada; died December 28, 1908 of "acute indigestion" in New York), an Episcopalian clerk employed by his uncle,[2] and Agnes T. Blackburn (born March 1844 in Osnabruck Township, Eastern District, Upper Canada; died 1915),[3] an Episcopalian school teacher.[4] William and Agnes, were childhood sweethearts who grew up in Osnabruck in Stormont County, Ontario, near the Long Sault just across the Saint Lawrence River from Upstate New York,[5] an area had been settled originally by the 1st Battalion of Sir John Johnson's King's Royal Regiment of New York (also known informally as the Royal New Yorkers and the Royal Greens) after the conclusion of the American Revolutionary War in 1783. WG Hoople had been born on a farm on the banks of Hoople's Creek granted about 1797 to his grandfather Henry Hoople (born 1760 in Cherry Valley, New York; died 1838 in Stormont, Ontario, Canada) on the Second Concession by the British government as reward for fighting for the Loyalist cause.[6] "Willie" Gordon Hoople was born after the death of his grandfather, however the farm was supervised by his grandmother, Henry's widow, Mary Whitmore "Granny" Hoople (born in New Jersey in 1767; died 1858), who, after the massacre of her parents and two siblings on Easter Day, March 26, 1780, had been abducted from the family farm at Mud Creek (now Jerseytown, Pennsylvania) by the Delaware Indians and lived among them for seven years.[7] After their marriage in 1788, Mary and Henry had twelve children: nine sons and three daughters, with Willie's father, Joseph Hoople ((born 1809 in Newington, Ontario; died 1892 in Newington).[8] being the eleventh child and youngest son.[9]

In April 1862 William G. Hoople migrated to New York City,[10] in the same month as the second marriage of his father.[11] After three years of advanced education in a New York academy financed by his uncle,[12] in 1865 W.G. entered the firm of his uncle, William Henry Hoople (born 1805 in Ontario, Canada; died June 17, 1895 in Hastings-on-Hudson, New York, age 89),[13] a widower who was also a prosperous businessman,[14] whose son, William H. Hoople, Jr., had refused to enter the family business.[15] WH Hoople had founded Van Nostrand & Hoople in 1832 with John Van Nostrand[16] at 38 Ferry Street,[17] near the corner with Cliff Street,[18] in an area of lower Manhattan known as "The Swamp",[19] the fetid southeastern blocks of the city centred on Jacob and Ferry Streets just east of City Hall, that had been "the (stinking) locus of the tanning and leather currying industry" since the late 1690s.[20] This firm sold tanning materials and dyes.[21]

After two years working for his uncle in a clerical position,[15] W.G. Hoople returned to Canada to marry Agnes at the Long Sault (now South Stormont), Ontario on June 26, 1867.[22] Soon after William Howard Hoople's birth in August 1868, the family moved from Herkimer to New York city. W.G. Hoople acquired US citizenship on July 27, 1869, at which time the family resided at 117 2nd Avenue (at the corner with Seventh Street) in what was then in the Little Germany section of the Lower East Side of New York City.[23][24] By 1870 the family had relocated to Jamaica, Queens, where WG Hoople lived with his wife; his widowed mother-in-law, Sarah Blackburn; and his son, William Howard Hoople; and a servant.[25] Subsequently their family was enlarged through the births of his three daughters:

  • Mary Edith Hoople Staebler (born 19 April 1870 in Jamaica, Long Island, New York; died 1955);[26]
  • Clara L. Hoople (born 1873 in New York; died 1873);[27] and
  • Bessie Maude Hoople Nichols (born June 1880 in New York; died 1966).[28]

After the retirement of his uncle in 1870, and after five years "learning the ropes", W.G. Hoople became a partner and managed Van Nostrand & Hoople, until his uncle's death on 17 June 1895.[29] As a reward for his stewardship, W.G. Hoople received a sizable inheritance of $55,000 in real estate from his uncle.[30] The success of his various business enterprises resulted in William G. Hoople becoming a multi-millionaire. In 1870 Hoople, in partnership with Edward Everett Androvette, established Hoople & Androvette, dealers in tanning materials and dyes, at 250 Front Street, New York city, a five-story building that they purchased in September 1902.[31] Also in 1870 W.G. Hoople and Loring Andrew Robertson (born November 12, 1828 in Windham, New York; died October 9, 1890 in New York) formed Robertson & Hoople,[32] which traded as a leather merchant. On January 3, 1884 W.G. Hoople and Robertson incorporated the New York Leather Belting Company which manufactured oak-tanned leather belting, waterproof leather halting, and electric belts at its factory at the corner of South Eleventh Street and Kent Avenue, Brooklyn.[33] Additionally, W.G. Hoople had established Hoople & Nichols, in partnership with William S. Nichols (born February 1845 in Rhode Island; died September 25, 1892),[34] whose son, Albert I. Nichols, later became his partner in the firm, and also married his youngest daughter, Bessie.[35] This firm imported shellac,[36] but later expanded to become a hardware store, selling brushes.[37] WG Hoople was also involved in real estate investments. In September 1893 WG Hoople purchased four multi-story buildings at Peck Slip and Pearl Street, Manhattan that were under foreclosure,[38] while in August 1897 he sold a four-story brownstone-front building near the infamous Five Points at 32 Great Jones Street for $27,000,[39] and in 1899 he sold the building that housed his offices at 38 Ferry Street, New York, to philanthropist businessman Charles Adolph Schieren (born February 28, 1842 in Germany; died March 15, 1915), the penultimate mayor of Brooklyn (1894–1895).[40] WG Hoople was also a director of the Hide and Leather Bank that had been established on June 15, 1891 and was headquartered in a ten-story building at 88–90 Gold Street.[41] By 1909 WG Hoople was also a member of the New York Drug Trade Club.[42]

Pratt Institute, Brooklyn

Education and business

By 1879 the WG Hoople family had moved to 352 Greene Avenue, Brooklyn, New York.[43] William Howard Hoople was one of the first twelve students at the Pratt Institute,[44] a co-educational trade school at Clinton Hill, Brooklyn, established on October 17, 1887 and endowed by Charles Pratt (1830–1891), the wealthy co-founder of Standard Oil, "for training skilled artisans, foremen, designers and draftsmen".[45] After graduation from Pratt Institute, Hoople attended another business college in Brooklyn.[44] About 1888 Hoople was still living at 1475 Pacific Street, Brooklyn with his parents.[46] Soon after Hoople opened his own leather business,[47] which manufactured Goodyear Welting at a factory he built on a property owned by his great uncle, William H. Hoople, at 50 Ferry Street, New York City.[48] Upon the death of his great uncle in 1895, he inherited this property, then valued at $10,000.[49]


On May 2, 1891[50] Hoople married Victoria Irene Cranford (born May 24, 1867 in Brooklyn, New York; died April 1952)[51][52] in the home of Victoria's parents.[50]

By 1896 the Hooples were living at 102 Decatur Street, Brooklyn.[53] The Hooples had one daughter and five sons:[54]

  • Ruth Agnes Hoople (born January 14, 1892 in New York; died July 1972 in Syracuse, New York), who graduated from Syracuse University in 1914, and completed a Master of Arts in History in 1915; worked for the next two years in social service in Buffalo, New York for the YWCA; was as a missionary with the YWCA in China (1917–1928), serving in Peking (1917–1918), at the Girls' Normal School in Mukden, Manchuria (1918–1920, 1924), and Tientsin (from 1920, where she was general secretary of the YWCA in Tientsin);[55][56] began a PhD program at Columbia University in 1922; and later served as a chaplain at the Syracuse University, and as the executive secretary of the Syracuse-in-China programme (1941–1952);[57]
  • William Clifford Hoople (born October 20, 1893 in New York; died September 2, 1943 in New York "of a heart ailment"),[58] married Marguerite (Marjorie) Landenberger (born October 24, 1893 in Pennsylvania; died December 1978 in New Hampshire) in 1915,[59] graduated from Syracuse University in 1920, coached rowing at Harvard University, and became an artist who provided illustrations for the American Legion Weekly;[60] Saturday Evening Post, Country Gentleman, Farm Life, and McCall's, and to accompany the writing of Agatha Christie;[61] WC Hoople was considered one of the contemporary artistic rivals of Norman Rockwell;[62]
  • Gordon Douglass "Gymp" Hoople (born 19 February 1895 in Brooklyn, New York; died 4 June 1973 in Syracuse, New York),[63] who after completing his Bachelor of Science (1919) and M.D. (1922) at Syracuse University
    File:Hoople Special Education Building, Syracuse University.jpg
    The Gordon D. Hoople Special Education and Rehabilitation Building
    and his internship in Brooklyn, spent four months as a missionary in Chengdu, China from December 1921, married Dorothea L. Brokaw on August 2, 1922, before departing on August 24, 1922 to serve as a missionary doctor under the Methodist Episcopal church as part of the Syracuse-in-China programme in Chongqing, China, Professor of Otolaryngology at Syracuse University (1928–1953),[64] who served on the Board of Trustees of the university since 1931, and chairman by 1962, and was awarded The George Arents Pioneer Medal in 1951[65] and an honorary Doctor of Laws degree by his alma mater in 1967.[66] During World War II, Gordon D. Hoople served as a major in the US Army Medical Corps.[67] The Gordon D. Hoople Special Education and Rehabilitation Building of Syracuse University, which was completed in February 1953,[68] is at the corner of South Crouse Avenue and Marshall Street, contains the Gordon D. Hoople Hearing and Speech Center.[69]
  • Howard Cranford "Tot" Hoople (born October 12, 1897 in New York;[70] died August 27, 1977 in Damariscotta, Maine),[71] a graduate of Syracuse University in 1921, married Nelda Rautenberg (born June 14, 1898; died August 1985 in Maine) in the summer of 1921 in New York,[72] who by 1930 was a life insurance salesman;[73] and who from 1945 to its temporary closure in 1965, owned Camp Med-O-Lark on Washington Pond, Washington, Maine;[74]

By June 1900 Hoople and Victoria were living back at 1475 Pacific Street, Brooklyn with three servants, and Henrietta (Hettie), Victoria's 49 year-old spinster sister.[75]

  • Ross Earle Hoople (born June 30, 1900 in New York; died June 17, 1946),[76] graduated from the philosophy department of Syracuse University in June 1922, attended Harvard in 1922–1923,[77] married Ruth T. Pearsall (died November 21, 1958 in Syracuse, New York) at the Presbyterian Church in Mount Vernon, New York on June 1926,[78] and was by 1932 professor of Philosophy at Syracuse University, and chairman of the Faculty Forum on Religion, and later the author of Preface to Philosophy: Book of Readings (1946);[79] and
  • Robert Blackburn Hoople (born February 25, 1905 in New York; died March 31, 1992 in Binghamton, New York),[80] who graduated from Syracuse University in 1926, later earned a Master of Arts degree.[81]


According to Basil Miller, "Hoople was a mighty man in frame as well as spirit, for he stood six feet and six inches (when he took off his leather shoes) and pushed the scale beam up at 250 pounds".[82][83] In another account Hoople is described as "a large man with a commanding presence and great earnestness of manner."[84]

Spiritual background

As a child Hoople and his family attended the Sunday School of the Central Congregational church located at Hancock Street, near Franklin Avenue in Brooklyn,[85] and later became a member of that church.[86] In December 1885 Hoople attended an evangelistic service for young men in the newly opened building of the Central Branch of the YMCA at 502 Fulton Street, Brooklyn held by Dwight Moody and Ira Sankey,[87] and at the conclusion of the service, while the choir sang Just as I Am, responded to the gospel invitation and "walked into the arms of Jesus".[88] In an interview for the Brooklyn Eagle in February 1895, Hooper indicated: "I was converted nine years ago at the Central branch of the Young Men's Christian association in Brooklyn".[89] Hoople believed he was saved from "a life of frivolity and ambition."[90]

J. Wilbur Chapman

Hoople was a baritone[91] who "was blessed with a beautiful voice",[92] Hoople was described in 1933 as "a great singer, having a fine, deep, powerful voice. If he couldn't accomplish his purpose in any other way, he sang his way through."[93] Hoople often sang solos and led the singing in churches of various denominations, at the Methodist Home for the Aged in Brooklyn,[94] and at services sponsored by the YMCA and the Christian Endeavor Society.[95] Additionally, by 1891 Hoople spoke regularly in YMCA meetings, and preached in the Bethesda Congregational Church while the pastor was on vacation.[96] Hoople was a member of the "famous Hadley Male Quartet",[97] which further spread Hoople's fame and influence in the city. One report indicated: "If there were no other way through, the quartet helped Hoople sing his way through. When this quartet sang to an audience of six thousand at a meeting of J. Wilbur Chapman's revival in New York city there were few dry eyes."[98][99]

On June 18, 1891 Hoople was elected the first treasurer of the nonsectarian Industrial Christian Alliance, which would give "practical help to the outcast poor", in a similar manner to the methods of the Salvation Army.[100] By July 14, 1891 the ICA was incorporated.[101] On November 30, 1891 the Alliance opened a 39-bed home at 113 MacDougal Street (today the site of the Minetta Tavern), near Hoople's business,[102] where the poor could stay for up to sixty days, "be cleaned, clothed, treated medically and mentally", and given the opportunity to work in one of the sponsoring businesses. Plans were to establish a depot for women, rescue missions, and to establish kindergartens, day nurseries, and industrial schools.[101] One of the activities of the ICA was to establish a broom factory where the residents could work in exchange for their room and board, and the brooms and whisks were sold to generate income for the ICA.[103] As a result of the Panic of 1893, unemployment and poverty increased dramatically in this area, necessitating the relocation of the ICA home to a 100-bed facility at 170 Bleecker Street by May 1, 1893.[104] During the Winter of 1893, the ICA opened the People's Restaurant at its headquarters at 170 Bleecker Street and at six other locations.[105] The ICA provided a million meals to the impoverished unemployed for only 5 cents for a hot meal for a family of four people,[106] but by the end of 1894 the ICA was pleading to the general public for the first time for additional financial resources, and Hoople was no longer treasurer.[107]

John Street Methodist Church

According to Hoople, "For several years after I was a member of a praying band".[89] In the early 1890s Hoople began attending the noonday prayer meeting at the John Street Methodist Church at 44 John Street, Manhattan. There he met Charles H. BeVier (born September 5, 1858; died about 1905),[108] "a zealous witness to holiness and choir leader at the largest Methodist church in Brooklyn."[109] According to Nazarene historian Timothy L. Smith, "Hoople thought BeVier's "fanaticism" a pity, and set out to argue his new friend into rejecting sanctification. Instead, Hoople wound up finding the blessing himself" in his own shop in 1893.[110] Hoople began attending some holiness meetings held in private homes in Brooklyn, "where they could worship God in the freedom of the Spirit."[111] In July 1893 Hoople underwrote the expenses for the first ever camp meeting to be held in the small hamlet of Nanuet, New York, near his country home.[112] At that time Hoople was a still a member of Central Congregational Church, which was pastored by Dr. Adolphus J.F. Behrends (born 1839 in the Netherlands; died c.1899 in New York).[113] However, by October 1893 Hoople had left the Congregational church and was attending the Methodist church at Windsor Terrace, Flatbush.[114] In 1895 Hoople indicated that because he became an adherent of “Methodist doctrine”, he was "unwelcome in the Calvinistic church that nurtured his early faith in Christ".[115]


Soon after his entire sanctification, Hoople continued to operate as a leather merchant in business hours, but each evening he began preaching on the streets,[116] in rented halls, and "wherever a tiny crack in some mission door appeared".[44] Gradually Hoople believed that "God was leading him to provide a place where sanctified people could sing and shout to their hearts' content".[111] Consequently, Hoople rented a former saloon (next to a brothel) at 123 Schenectady Avenue in Brooklyn.[117] Hoople had it cleaned and furnished, and on New Year's Day, 1894, began holding services.[111] On January 4, 1894 Hoople and BeVier, who led a Methodist mission in Brooklyn, opened an Independent Holiness Mission, with Hoople being elected superintendent by the members.[118] From the beginning the basic motivation was to establish a holiness work and especially to preach to the poor.[119]

Utica Avenue Pentecostal Tabernacle (1894–1904)

From this mission a congregation developed rapidly, necessitating relocation to a larger facility. Hoople; John Norberry (born July 29, 1867 in Paterson, New Jersey; died September 26, 1937 at Ocean Grove, New Jersey),[120] a Methodist local preacher;[121] and Richard T. Ryons (born 1834; died January 17, 1915 in Brooklyn), a Methodist who had been an actor in the troupe managed by Laura Keene,[122] found a vacant lot on nearby Utica Avenue, between Dean and Bergen Streets, which, after the three knelt down and prayed, believed was the right location. Hoople purchased the lot with money borrowed from his father.[123] In April 1894 Hoople's father funded the estimated $2,000 cost to erect a simple one-story frame tabernacle-style church building that measured 49.5 feet in length and the same in width on the site.[124] Just over three weeks after the building permit was granted, the new church was opened on May 16, 1894[125] with Hoople as pastor and 32 charter members.[126] The Utica Avenue Pentecostal Tabernacle was dedicated on June 15, 1894[127] with the dedication sermon preached at 7.30 pm by Methodist Rev. Dr. M.D. Collins of Ocean Grove, New Jersey.[128] Redford recorded:

Despite the lack of architectural beauty, a greater spirit of worship was there than was found in many magnificent church structures. The unusual spiritual enthusiasm drew such crowds that frequently numbers of persons were turned away from the services. The membership grew rapidly, and the lives of many persons were transformed.[129]

Late in 1894 Hoople was ordained, with prominent holiness movement leader Baptist Rev. Edgar M. Levy (born November 23, 1822 in St. Marys, Georgia; died October 30, 1906 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania),[130] who co-founded the Douglas, Massachusetts Holiness Camp Meeting in 1875,[131] preaching the ordination sermon.[132] Just prior to Christmas 1894, the non-denominational New-York State Holiness Association was opened in this building, with BeVier elected president, and Hoople elected vice-president.[133]

At 9.30 am on February 1, 1895 Hoople opened the Bedford Avenue Pentecostal Tabernacle at the corner of south Third Street and Bedford Avenue in east Brooklyn in a former Unitarian church which they leased for $1,000 per year.[134] The congregation was organised as the Bedford Avenue Pentecostal Church on February 24, 1895 with 20 charter members.[135] By January 1897 this congregation had grown to about 130 members.[129] John Norberry was called to be its pastor.[136] The church was congregational in polity with two elders (Hoople and Ryon), three deacons, and two deaconesses. It was independent of all denominations, and its doctrine was self-described as "Bible holiness and entire sanctification obtainable in this life".[137] It prohibited raising funds through church fairs, entertainments or picnics. Hoople indicated: "I do not believe that money for the Lord should be raised through the medium of a man's stomach, or his mere love of amusements. The only offerings that will find favor in His sight is free will offerings."[138] In 1895 Hoople described himself in the Christian Witness as a Congregationalist who had “embraced Methodist doctrine”. This logic lay behind the churches Hoople shepherded in Brooklyn. He rejected American Methodism’s episcopal system.[115] Hoople received no salary for his ministry, and paid most of the expenses including rent, gas, and heat himself as the members of his congregation were often impoverished.[121] One 1897 newspaper account indicated: "His work in the church is a labor of love. He receives no salary. The little church he built and paid for with his own money."[84] At that time a church representative (possibly Hoople himself) explained:
We are an Independent, dependent body, and are not come-outers but as none of the evangelical bodies seemed to desire to push holiness as a second work of grace, and where they had tried this it took a good deal of coaxing and teaching and then after it was about accomplished some one came along and upset the whole thing, because they had control of the temporal power and were opposed to holiness; and as our time here is short and we didn't amount to much, we thought the most sensible thing for us to do was to walk alone with the Triune God. Perhaps this may sound strange to some of my Methodist brethren, but after all you can't expect very much from one who was a Congregationalist and embraced Methodist doctrine. Holiness is apt to make us appear to the world a little peculiar."[139]

As early as February 1895 Hoople envisioned additional congregations: "It is my intention if our two churches become in any way self-supporting to start others in different parts of the town. There is plenty of room for them."[140] The third church planted was the Emmanuel Pentecostal Tabernacle, which was organised in a deserted church building at the corner of Lewis Avenue and Kosciusko Street, Brooklyn on Labor Day (Monday, September 3), 1895 with Frederick William "Fred" Sloat (born January 12, 1875 in New York)[141] ordained as the pastor "amidst the outpouring of the Spirit", with the church membership soon reaching 39.[142]

Association of Pentecostal Churches of America (1895–1907)

File:Hiram F Reynolds.jpg
Hiram F Reynolds

On December 12, 1895 Hoople and BeVier, with the assistance of Hiram F. Reynolds, a Methodist minister who had joined Hoople's group in October 1895, organised the three churches into a new holiness denomination, the Association of Pentecostal Churches of America (APCA),[143] which was incorporated in the state of New York about April 8, 1896, with Hoople, Norberry and Sloat as three of the six trustees.[144] While all of the APCA churches were at that time in Brooklyn, the choice of name indicated clearly that the founders had a vision for it to become a national denomination.[145]

The APCA proposed union with the Central Evangelical Holiness Association (founded in 1890), and ultimately most of the fifteen congregations of that group became members of the APCA.[146] After initial discussions held in Hoople's parlor from November 11, 1896 that resulted in a plan of union being developed, the union was finalized on April 13, 1897 at Lynn, Massachusetts.[147] at which time the APCA decided to send its first missionaries to India.[148] A standing missionary committee of twelve members was created to oversee all foreign missionary work, with Hoople elected chairman.[149] This committee was the only central planning body of the denomination.[150] While its focus was on its embryonic work overseas, which was to support missionary work from 1898 in India and from 1900 in Cape Verde, its executive committee also increasingly supervised domestic activities.[145][150]

In May 1897 Hoople was accused by two excommunicated church members of using hypnotism to frequently put some members of his congregation into trances that lasted up to three hours in special meetings held after the usual services,[151] where one woman was allegedly driven insane, and one man even died of a heart attack.[152] One church member indicated that during her sanctification, "I knew nothing of what was going on around me, but I was permitted to see God and he gave me hymns to sing and unhappiness fell from me."[153] Paulin Vauclair, a deaconess in the Utica Avenue church, and one of the women who passed out during the services, denied the accusations against Hoople, indicating "It is the spirit of God which inspires us to act as we do, and Pastor Hoople has no more to do with it than you do."[154] Vauclair indicated that a number of men and women fainted, and that these also occurred when Hoople was absent.[155] Another deacon responded to the accusations: "Pastor Hoople possesses no power save that which comes from the Holy Ghost."[155] After the accounts featured in the Brooklyn Eagle and elsewhere, Hoople took a three weeks' trip and the services were more subdued.[156] However, on May 27, 1897 Hoople was still scheduled to join a number of APCA ministers at the dedication of the new People's Pentecostal Tabernacle APCA church at the corner of Latham and Division streets, Sag Harbor, New York on June 3–4, 1897.[157] Hiram Reynolds recalled in 1933:

About this time we dedicated a church building, over at Sag Harbor, Long Island, New York. At the altar service, following the dedication, the power and glory of God, as in the Old Testament times, so filled the church and fell on the officiating ministers and upon the people that there was no more service in the sanctuary. Such grace remained upon the ministry that as they were trying to walk to their places of entertainment they laughed, cried and shouted. It took them a long time to reach the parsonage, for en route they would lean on picket fences, and against buildings, the glory was so great. After reaching the pastor's home they had to wait a long time on the steps, too overcome to climb the stairs.... In the days of the late '90s it was the common experience to see persons fall under 'the power' of God. It was not infrequent to have them, as they recovered from these visitations, shout, laugh and demonstrate in various ways. Invariably on these occasions the glory of God would fill the place and often many of the people.... In these early days, of which we write, the holiness people nearly everywhere practiced getting together, especially in cities, or where there were nearby holiness bodies of different denominational preferences, and having what they termed 'an all day holiness meeting.' . . . We were once having such a meeting in Brooklyn, N. Y. when at the close of the forenoon service, before the speaker could call for seekers, the power and glory of God were poured out upon the entire place, Rev. Wm. Howard Hoople was among the first among the preachers to fall on the platform. Others were prostrated, and many of the lay people present fell and remained under the miraculous power of God even until the afternoon preaching service. The altar services during the afternoon and evening were crowned with seekers."[158]

The APCA grew steadily from 1897 to 1907 as churches were added in New England, the Middle Atlantic states, the District of Columbia, Canada, and the Midwest. Reynolds organized churches in Oxford and Springhill, Nova Scotia, in 1902. A congregation in Pittsburgh led by John Norris united in 1899. By 1907 there were churches in Illinois and Iowa. In 1900 the Pentecostal Collegiate Institute (now Eastern Nazarene College) was founded at Saratoga Springs, New York, and relocated to North Scituate, Rhode Island in the fall of 1903.[145][159]

By 1900 Hoople was a featured speaker in the Brooklyn Forward Movement, a movement that united pastors of various denominations to conduct co-operative evangelistic and civic activities, and to promote temperance.[160] Their approach was to use churches as the venue for their activities rather than halls and theatres, and to have meetings extended over a longer period rather than those of only a few days.[161] Hoople also supported the Prohibition movement and both allowed his churches to be used as venues for temperance rallies and to speak at them.[162]

On January 1, 1904 Hoople resigned as pastor of the Utica Avenue Pentecostal church exactly ten years after he began the work in Brooklyn.[163] At the 1904 annual meeting of the APCA, the delegates elected Hoople as both field evangelist and superintendent of home missions with an annual salary of $1,200 per year.[164] However, by the end of 1904 Hoople resigned his full-time salaried position in the APCA partly because the committee would not act on his recommendations regarding the debt-ridden Pentecostal Collegiate Institute.[165] While remaining a minister within the APCA, Hooper then worked with Henry B. "Harry" Hosley (born November 1861 in New York; died 1925), then pastor of the Wesleyan Pentecostal APCA Church in Washington D.C.[166] with the Pentecostal League, a "transdenominational Wesleyan holiness movement"[167] that had been founded in 1891 in Britain by Anglican barrister Richard Reader Harris (born July 5, 1847 in Worcester, England; died March 30, 1909 in London, England)[165] to "spread Scriptural Holiness by unsectarian methods."[168]

John Wesley Pentecostal Church (1905–1907)

In 1905, after the death of Charles BeVier, who had been the founding pastor of the John Wesley Pentecostal Church since its organization on December 17, 1896 in a rented storefront, Hoople began a thirteen-year pastorate at this church.[169] By September 1907 the church had relocated to a site at the corner of Saratoga Avenue and Sumpter Street, Brooklyn, which they had purchased for $6,500.[170] The new site was dedicated on Sunday April 14, 1907, and a building seating 800 was constructed and opened about September 1, 1907. The church was to be a memorial to BeVier.[171]

Union discussions (April 1907)

At a meeting held at the Utica Avenue church between the leaders of the APCA (including Hoople and John Norberry) and Phineas F. Bresee, Christian Wismer (C.W.) Ruth (born September 1, 1865 in Hilltown, Pennsylvania; died May 27, 1941 in Wilmore, Kentucky) and other representatives of the California-based Church of the Nazarene, on Thursday, April 11, 1907, "amidst tears, and laughter, and shouts, and every possible manifestation of holy joy",[172] a plan of union between the two denominations was agreed unanimously, with consummation to be at Chicago in October.[173] In May 1903 Ruth had contact with the APCA at a camp meeting in which he was one of the preachers. As he was considerably impressed with the APCA, he wrote Bresee from Allentown, Pennsylvania that "William Howard Hoople, H. F. Reynolds, and C. Howard Davis led a 'plain, fire-baptized, Holy Ghost people' who conducted "about the noisiest and 'shoutinest'" camp meeting he had ever attended."[174] After hearing Bresee preach, Hoople said to his friends and associates, "If we cannot unite with a man like that, God have mercy on us."[175] Despite the enthusiasm of the denominational leaders, union required considerable negotiation as, like many other pastors in the APCA, Hoople was a strong, independent-minded leader "who resented any compromise of congregational autonomy".[176] Only a few weeks earlier, Hoople had written in the Beulah Christian: "With some of us our present form of government is a matter of principle."[177] Hoople was willing to unite with the Church of the Nazarene if it would "consent to the Congregational form of government; [however] if it is to be the connectional Episcopal form there is one person in the Association who will be left out of the Union – the writer."[178] After the plan of union was agreed upon, Hoople indicated that he had submerged secondary matters in order to facilitate "a combined attack on the powers of hell and darkness".[179] Hoople admitted that he had had to "gulp a good deal down in order to make the union possible."[179] At the consummation of the union with the Church of the Nazarene, the APCA had 45 congregations and 2,407 members, scattered from Iowa to Nova Scotia, while the Church of the Nazarene reported 48 congregations and 3,827 members at that time.[180]

Pentecostal Church of the Nazarene (1907–1922)

File:WH Hoople GA.jpg
Hoople at General Assembly

At the General Assembly in Chicago in October 1907, Hoople started to re-consider his support of the union, and had thought of keeping the churches he had pioneered in Brooklyn out of the merger, but he finally acquiesced.[181] After giving an account of the origin and development of the Association of Pentecostal Churches of America, Hoople informed the assembled delegates:

We thank God for the prosperity we have had; that repeatedly in one section and another we found openings. Today we have something like forty churches, and it is wonderful how the Lord has blessed us. Sometimes it seems that there were periods when things were against us, but we have stood the storm, and come out the stronger.... We have put more members in other churches than we have taken out. We are not sore or fighting. We are just pushing, that is all. We desire to have a heart as big as the world is round.[182]

After the union was completed at 9.30 pm on October 16, 1907, Bresee was elected general superintendent by acclamation, with Hoople one of those who spoke approvingly in favour of Bresee's election.[183] While Hoople polled well in the election of the second general superintendent, ultimately Reynolds was chosen to serve with Bresee.[184]

District Superintendent New York District (1907–1911)

After the merger of the Association of Pentecostal Churches of America with the Church of the Nazarene to form the Pentecostal Church of the Nazarene in Chicago in October 1907, Hoople was appointed the first district superintendent of the New York district (which included both the state of New York but also Connecticut), a position he held reluctantly until 1911.[185] At the Second General Assembly, which would be deemed later as the founding of the denomination, held at Pilot Point, Texas in October 1908, Hoople was one of those who seconded the motion to effect the merger with the Holiness Church of Christ on October 13. According to C.B. Jernigan, "Brother W. H. Hoople addressed the Assembly on the prospective joy of the union of the two churches, and expressed satisfaction in seeing nothing but the spirit of Jesus in all the deliberations. "It is holiness that has done it, and Jesus is responsible for it."[186] Nazarene historian Timothy L. Smith recorded: "After the unanimous vote for union had been announced, a wiry little Texan started across the platform saying, 'I haven't hugged a Yankee since before the Civil War, but I'm going to hug one now.' At once Brooklyn's William Howard Hoople, his 275 pounds adorned with a glorious handlebar mustache, leaped up from the other end of the platform and met the Texan near the pulpit. Their embrace set off a celebration. The gap between North and South was closed forever."[187] As a result of the consummation of the union, three general superintendents would be chosen. On the first ballot both Bresee and Reynolds were re-elected, with Hoople and Edgar P. Ellyson tied in third. On the second ballot Ellyson was elected.[188]

John Wesley Pentecostal Church of the Nazarene (1907–1917)

While still superintendent of the New York district, Hoople remained the pastor of the John Wesley Pentecostal Church of the Nazarene.[189] At this time Hoople resided at 1417 Dean Street, Brooklyn with his wife Victoria; their six children; Victoria's 53 year-old spinster sister, Emma Louise Cranford; and two servants.[190] In 1911 the church was holding worship services on Tuesday, Wednesday, and Friday evenings at 8.00 pm, as well as a Holiness meeting and Class meetings at 8.00 pm on Thursday evenings, in addition to a service at 11.00 am and again at 8.00 pm on Sundays. Sunday School was held at 2.30 pm on Sundays, and a Young People's service held at 7.00 pm. On Wednesday evenings at 8.00 pm Hoople conducted a Bible Study and Theology class in his study. Finally, on Fridays at 4.00 pm there were separate Children's and Youth classes.[191] Joseph Caldwell Bearse (born 4 October 1869 in South Chatham, Massachusetts; died 2 July 1931 in South Portland, Maine)[192] served as Hoople's associate pastor at this time.[193] While Hoople was not known as a great preacher, he was known as a great pastor. His enthusiasm never failed to rally the people, and he lifted his melodious voice in song whenever the worship service lagged, raising the spirits of his congregation."[194] In May 1913 Hoople was subpoenaed to appear in court after Rebecca Yankolowitz (born in Russia in 1897), who had converted to Christianity and joined the John Wesley Church, ran away from her home and could not be located by her parents, Morris, a kosher butcher, and Bertha.[195] During his thirteen years of leadership this congregation grew from 163 members reported in October 1908 to 350 members.[54][196]

Hoople was one of the featured preachers at the Third General Assembly of the Pentecostal Church of the Nazarene held in the auditorium of the Pentecostal Mission at Fourth Avenue, Nashville, Tennessee and also in the Ryman Auditorium in October 1911.[197] At this General Assembly, a General Foreign Missionary Board was created, with Hoople elected president.[198] In 1912 Hoople was asked to chair a committee to investigate whether his friend H.B. Hosley, a pastor of "incurable independence",[199] who had been pastor of the Washington D.C. Pentecostal Church of the Nazarene since Sunday, 28 December 1902,[200] (thus replacing founding pastor Charles Howard Davis), and the founding district Superintendent of the Washington District of the Pentecostal Church of the Nazarene since October 1907, should be disciplined. In 1910 Hosley had transferred the ownership of the church's property in Washington D.C. to an interdenominational holiness trust.[201] Hoople, "a champion of local church autonomy", exonerated Hosley, who after June 1913 subsequently resigned and withdrew with the majority of his congregation from the denomination into a new group that was "Wesleyan in doctrine" but "independent and congregational" in government.[202] Hoople was one of the dominant voices at the Fourth General Assembly of the Pentecostal Church of the Nazarene held at the Kansas City First Church at the corner of 24th Street and Troost Avenue in Kansas City, Missouri, from 30 September 1915.[203]

As a result of the disorganisation of the University Pentecostal Church of the Nazarene in Pasadena, California and the removal of its pastor, Seth Cook Rees (born at Westfield, Indiana on 6 August 1854; died 22 May 1933 at Pasadena, California),[204] by fiat of the district superintendent on 25 February 1917, Hoople (who always had reservations about the need and power of the superintendents in the Church of the Nazarene) wrote to General Superintendent Hiram F. Reynolds in early 1917 that "the only basis under which he would continue to stay in the church was that he be released from all he had formerly agreed to 'in the line of Superintendency.' He would thereafter 'privately and publicly advocate away with all Superintendents."[205] A few months later Hoople took a leave of absence from the John Wesley Church to participate actively in World War I. During Hoople's absence John Norberry served as pastor of the John Wesley Church.[206]

YMCA (1917–1920)

After the entry of the USA into World War I on 6 April 1917, Hoople volunteered to minister to the troops of the American Expeditionary Force with the YMCA.[207] He was appointed a secretary of the National War Council of the Y.M.C.A. of the USA.[208] On 18 May 1918 Hoople sailed for France.[209] While in France, Hoople worked incessantly at the front lines as an entertainer, where he not only raised the spirits of the troops with "his melodious singing", but also led many soldiers to Christ.[210] Hoople preached "in barns, buildings that had been shot to pieces, from the tail end of wagons, and auto trucks. His great voice led them many times in singing the old hymns that reminded them of home and sacred things. He won the hearts of thousands of those laddies, until he was commonly known among the regiment as 'Pop'."[211] While on the front lines, Hoople was exposed to poisonous gas, and his health was subsequently damaged for the rest of his life.[54][211] He was subsequently stationed in Italy and Germany, before returning to Brooklyn and his ministry at the John Wesley Pentecostal Church of the Nazarene. However, by 1919 Hoople was the pastor of the Utica Avenue Pentecostal Tabernacle that he had founded in 1894, and Rev. A.E. Reid was listed as the pastor at John Wesley church.[212]

After 15 September 1919 Hoople left New York again to serve with the International Committee of the YMCA in Vladivostok, Siberia; China; and Japan.[213] Hoople again ministered to the American Expeditionary Forces stationed in Siberia, and assisted in relief work among the civilian population.[214] On his way to Siberia, Hoople visited Mukden to see his daughter, Ruth, who had been serving as a YWCA missionary to China since September 1917.[215] After serving in Siberia, Hoople was able to visit Ruth who was now serving in Peking, China, where he was able to preach frequently.[216] On 7 March 1920 Hoople arrived in Seattle, Washington on the Japanese ship Suwa Maru, having left Yokohama, Japan on 19 February 1920.[217]

Church of the Nazarene (1919–1922)

John Wesley Church of the Nazarene (1919–1922)

After his return to Brooklyn in 1920, Hoople resumed preaching at the now renamed John Wesley Church of the Nazarene.[98][218][219] At this time Hoople and his wife Victoria, were living at 277 Brooklyn Avenue, Brooklyn, a three-story brownstone building in the Crown Heights area built in 1905,[220] with five of his children; his two spinster sisters-in-law, Henrietta and Louise; and a boarder.[221] Rev. Susan Norris Fitkin (born in Quebec, Canada on March 31, 1869; died October 18, 1951 in Alameda, California),[222] the first general president of the Woman's Missionary Society for the Church of the Nazarene (now Nazarene Missions International) (1915–1948), her husband, Rev. Abram Edward Fitkin (born September 18, 1878 in Brooklyn, New York; died March 18, 1933 in New York city),[223] and three of their children, were living nearby at 271 Brooklyn Avenue at this time.[224]

Business interests

On 29 May 1889 Hoople applied for a US Patent for "a new and Improved Leather-Stripping Machine" that he had invented. Patent 412,503 was granted on 8 October 1889.[225] On 17 January 1899 Edgar J. Force (born March 1847 in Canada) assigned to Hoople one-fourth of the patent for his invention of "new and useful Improvements in Curtain or Portière Pole Rings and Fastenings".[226] By 1902 Hoople was a director of Raimes & Company (established 1892).[227] By 1909 he was also the president (having replaced his father who had been vice-president when he died in 1908),[228] a New York-based company that manufactured druggist's supplies, such as "soft gelatine capsules, potassium ioxide, and galenicals".[229]

In April 1908 Hoople was a part of a consortium that founded the Circle Publishing Company with its headquarters in the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals building at 15 West 26th Street and 50 Madison Avenue in New York city, and purchased The Circle magazine (founded 1906) from the Funk & Wagnalls Company, with Hoople becoming the founding vice president and treasurer, and Eugene Thwing (born in Quincy, Massachusetts on January 17, 1866; died in Ridgewood, New Jersey on May 29, 1936),[230] editor of The Circle since its inception, becoming president.[231] However by 1910 the magazine failed,[232] and was eventually sold in 1911 to the Thwing Company founded by Eugene Thwing.[233] By 1909 Hoople was a director of the New York branch of the Cerebos Salt Company (founded in 1894), which had its registered office at 50 Ferry Street, New York, and appeared on the US market about 1904.[234] By 1916 Hoople was the president of the Interstate Electric Corporation.[235] By 1911 Hoople was listed as a director of the Spider Manufacturing Company, which made components for bicycles and automobiles, and was headquartered in his property at 50 Ferry Street, New York City.[236] In 1916 Hoople was the founding president and one of the leading businessmen in a consortium that helped capitalize the American Motors Corp. founded by Louis Chevrolet in Plainfield, New Jersey.[237] Hoople was president of American Motors until his death in 1922.[238] On January 25, 1917 the Hoople Corporation, which sold "metal polish, drugs, medicines, chemicals, baking powder, soaps, [and] groceries" was incorporated in New York state with $30,000 capital.[239]

After the entry of the United States into World War I in April 1917, Raimes & Company, the American agents of Franz Schulz, Jr. Co., a German company incorporated in New Jersey (in which Hoople then held 2% of the shares) that manufactured metal polish, attempted to seize the Schulz factory in order to preserve it and to allow its business to continue during the war. The owners of Franz Schulz., Jr. Co. subsequently sued Raimes & Company, for breach of contract and outstanding debts due to the Trading with the Enemy Act and the Alien Enemy Act.[240] On May 2, 1917, just prior to his embarkation for France, Hoople transferred his property at 250 Front Street in Manhattan, that had previously belonged to his father, to his two surviving sisters, Bessie M. H. Nichols and Mary E. H. Staebler.[241] In 1921 Hoople was the president of the Commonwealth Light & Power Co., with Abram Fitkin one of the directors.[242][243]


File:William Howard Hoople Gravesite 2010.JPG
Lower right: The gravesite of William Howard Hoople
After a seven-week illness, Hoople died at age 54 on Friday, September 29, 1922 in his home at 277 Brooklyn Avenue, Brooklyn,[244] of war-related injuries.[245] Hoople's last words were reported to be: "Jesus is my best friend."[98] After a funeral at 2 pm on Sunday, October 1 at the John Wesley Church of the Nazarene in Brooklyn,[246] Hoople was buried at the Sleepy Hollow Cemetery in Westchester County, New York.[247]


By November 1930 a Nazarene congregation, which met in the Reformed Church of America's former Church of Jesus church building (which was originally built in 1891) at 64 Menahan Street (at the corner of Bushwick Avenue, Brooklyn), had been named the Hoople Church of the Nazarene.[248][249]


  1. Hoople's gravestone says he was born in 1867.
  2. For a photo of William Gordon Hoople, see Moses King, Notable New Yorkers of 1896–1899: A Companion Volume to King's Handbook of New York City (New York: M. King, 1899):462. U.S. Passport Applications, 1795–1925 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Operations, Inc., 2007. Original data: Passport Applications, 1795–1905; (National Archives Microfilm Publication M1372, 694 rolls); General Records of the Department of State, Record Group 59; National Archives, Washington, D.C., July 15, 1902; "Obituary Notes", The New York Times (December 30, 1908):9,; The Pharmaceutical Era 41 (D. O. Haynes & Co., 1909):24.
  3. Her gravestone says she was born in 1843.
  4. Year: 1861; Census Place: Osnabruck, Stormont, Ontario; Roll: C-1074-1075, Ontario > Stormont > Page 361; Year: 1851; Census Place: Osnabruck, Stormont County, Canada West (Ontario). Schedule: A. Roll: C_11752, Page 137, Line: 1, Source Information: 1851 Census of Canada East, Canada West, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Operations Inc, 2006; Source Information: and Genealogical Research Library (Brampton, Ontario, Canada). Ontario, Canada Marriages, 1857–1924 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: The Generations Network, Inc., 2007. Original data: Ontario, Canada. Registrations of Marriages, 1869–1922. MS932, 695 reels. Archives of Ontario, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Ontario, Canada. Division Registrar Vital Statistics Records, 1858–1930. MS940, 28 reels. Archives of Ontario, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Family History Library Microfilm: 1030065; Brooklyn Blue Book and Long Island Society Register (Brooklyn Life Pub. Co., 1914):115, 288. Agnes was the daughter of William (see also: and Sarah, who was born in English Canada in August 1820. Her gravestone indicates she was born in 1819. Sarah died in 1910, aged 90. See US Federal Census (Year: 1900; Census Place: Hempstead, Nassau, New York; Roll T623_1079; Page: 18B; Enumeration District: 707); and 1910 US Federal Census.
  5. Howard, 2:881; Elizabeth L. Hoople, The Hooples of Hoople's Creek (Printed by the Ryerson Press, 1967):167.
  6. The minimum grant was two hundred acres for a private plus fifty acres for each child. See Ontario Dept. of Public Records and Archives, Report, Vol. 3 (L. K. Cameron, 1906):372; and William E.B. Howard, The Eagle and Brooklyn: The Record of the Progress of the Brooklyn Daily Eagle Vol. 2 (The Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 1893):881;; J. Ross Robertson, Landmarks of Canada: What Art Has Done for Canadian History: A Guide to the J. Ross Robertson Historical Collection in the Public Reference Library Toronto, Canada (Toronto: 1917):220.
  7. Also known as Mary Whitmoyer, see W. M. Baillie, "The Whitmoyer Saga",; Elizabeth L. Hoople, Medicine Maid: The Life Story of a Canadian Pioneer (Mika Pub. Co., 1977); Elizabeth L. Hoople, The Hooples of Hoople's Creek (Ryerson Press, 1967); William Kirby, Makers of Canadian Literature, edited by William Renwick Riddell (The Ryerson Press, 1923); Mark Jodoin, "Mary Hoople", in Shadow Soldiers of the American Revolution: Loyalist Tales from New York to Canada (The History Press),; Mark Jodoin, "Shadow Soldiers: Mary Hoople", Esprit de Corps (March 1, 2008),;col1; "Pioneer Memorial at Upper Canada Village", 1–2,
  8. See
  10. U.S. Passport Applications, 1795–1925 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Operations, Inc., 2007. Original data: Passport Applications, 1795–1905; (National Archives Microfilm Publication M1372, 694 rolls); General Records of the Department of State, Record Group 59; National Archives, Washington, D.C.
  11. Joseph Hoople married Dianah Milross on April 30, 1862 after the death of his first wife, Polly Ann Ransom (died 1860), the mother of WG Hoople. See
  12. Hoople Creek, 118.
  13. "Died", The New York Times (June 18, 1895):5; "Died", The New York Times (June 19, 1895):5; "The News of Queens", The Long Island Farmer, Jamaica, NY (June 21, 1895):8; North Eastern Reporter 72 (1905):229; "ROW OVER WOMAN'S MILLIONS; Heirs Contend That Mrs. Brinckerhoff's Will Is Not Valid", Special to The New York Times (July 26, 1910):14.
  14. By 1845 he was valued at $200,000, and considered: "One of the most wealthy and enterprising citizens in the leather trade". See Moses Yale Beach, Wealth and Biography of the Wealthy Citizens of New York City, 6th ed. (The Sun Office, 1845):16.
  15. 15.0 15.1 Hoople Creek, 118.
  16. Beach, Wealth and Biography, 32.
  17. Ferry Street no longer exists. It was a street formerly running from Gold Street, between Beekman and Frankfort Streets, eastward to Peck Slip at Water Street. The block between Pearl and Water Streets became part of Peck Slip in the 19th century. The part between Gold and Pearl Streets retained the name Ferry Street until it was demapped about 1969 for the Southbridge Towers housing complex. See "F Streets of New York",; "The Street Necrologys of Lower Manhattan", (accessed November 28, 2009). According to the latter source: "Ferry Street was probably named for the nearby Fulton Ferry which connected the Fulton Streets in Manhattan and Brooklyn from the late 1700s to the 1920s".
  18. Cliff Street was previously known as Skinner Street or Lane between Ferry Street and Hague Street. It became part of Cliff Street in 1827. Now demapped". See; and Scoville, Old Merchants, 262. A short stretch of Cliff Street survives between John and Fulton Streets. See
  19. Originally known as Beekman's Swamp after Wilhelmus (William) Beekman (born about 1622; died 1707). See John Leander Bishop, Edwin Troxell Freedley, and Edward Young, A History of American Manufactures, From 1608 to 1860, Vol. 1 (Edward Young & Co., 1864):254.
  20. D. Graham Burnett, Trying Leviathan: The Nineteenth-Century New York Court Case that Put the Whale on Trial and Challenged the Order of Nature (Princeton University Press, 2007):154; Frank Wayland Norcross, A History of the New York Swamp (Chiswick Press, 1901):172–173.; "Old Merchants Of The Swamp" (1921),; Joseph Alfred Scoville, The Old Merchants of New York City (Carleton, 1864):252; Federal Writers' Project (N.Y.), New York City Guide, 7th ed. (Random House, 1939):100.
  21. Norcross, 172–173.
  22. Hoople, Hoople Creek, 118; Howard 2:881.
  23. Today this location is the East Village area. In November 2009 the American Grill restaurant is located at this address, see, and the Showroom NYC gallery is on the second floor at this address, see
  24. New York Petitions for Naturalization [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Operations Inc, 2007. Original data: Soundex Index to Petitions for Naturalization filed in Federal, State, and Local Courts located in New York City, 1792–1989. New York, NY, USA: National Archives and Records Administration, Northeast Region. Title and Location of Court: Common Pleas Court, New York County Volume: 371 Record Number: 133; WG Hoople, US Passport Application, July 15, 1902.
  25. 1870 US Federal Census, Year: 1870; Census Place: Jamaica, Queens, New York; Roll M593_1078; Page: 651; Image: 543.
  26. In 1892 Mary married physician Dr. David M Staebler (born in Ontario, Canada in 16 November 1857, the son of a German father from Hesse and a Swiss mother; died after 14 May 1943 and before 25 October 1944) See The Berkshire Evening Eagle, (Pittsfield, Berkshire, MA: 14 May 1943):8 and The Berkshire County Eagle (25 October 1944); Father: Jacob F STAEBLER b: 28 DEC 1817 in Bernhausen, Germany, Mother: Anna MUENER b: 19 AUG 1824 in Kein, C, Switzerland (see; who had graduated from Trinity Medical School in Toronto, Ontario, who had migrated to the United States in 1890, and they had one son, Karl Merner Staebler (born 14 May 1895 in Brooklyn, New York; died November 1975 in Hackensack, New Jersey). David Staebler became a naturalized US citizen on 8 June 1899. See Source Citation: Year: 1900; Census Place: Brooklyn Ward 25, Kings, New York; Roll T623_1063; Page: 10A; Enumeration District: 436; Source Citation: Year: 1910; Census Place: Brooklyn Ward 25, Kings, New York; Roll T624_973; Page: 4B; Enumeration District: 694; Image: 700; Source Citation: Year: 1920; Census Place: Brooklyn Assembly District 5, Kings, New York; Roll T625_1151; Page: 7B; Enumeration District: 280; Image: 1073; Source Citation: Year: 1925; Microfilm serial: T715; Microfilm roll: T715_3624; Line: 7; Source Information: New York Passenger Lists, 1820–1957 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Operations Inc, 2006; Source Information: U.S. Naturalization Records Indexes, 1794–1995 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Operations Inc, 2007. Original data: U.S. Naturalization Records Indexes, 1794–1995, Index to Naturalization Petitions of the United States District Court for the Eastern District of New York, 1865–1957, Series: M1164; Elizabeth L. Hoople, The Hooples of Hoople's Creek (Printed by the Ryerson Press, 1967):167. See
  27. There is record of a Clara L. Hoople who was interred on 29 December 1873 in a family vault in the New York Marble Cemetery at 52–74 East 2nd Street, between Second and First Avenue, Manhattan, see Another source approximates her birth at 1875. See "Family of William Gordon HOOPLE",
  28. Bessie became engaged to Albert "Bert" I. Nichols (born September 1878 in New York) on Saturday, 22 June 1901. See "Engagements Announced", Brooklyn Eagle (22 June 1901):11; and they were married on 11 February 1903 (see, see 1900 US Federal Census; "Managers of the Institution for the Aged to Hold Sale on Saturday", Brooklyn Eagle (Tuesday, 18 November 1902):12; and Brooklyn Blue Book and Long Island Society Register (Brooklyn Life Pub. Co., 1905):142; Elizabeth L. Hoople, The Hooples of Hoople's Creek (Printed by the Ryerson Press, 1967):121, 167. Bessie and Bert had one son: Theodore Stoddard Nichols (born 1904), who married Adelaide Hall. See Hoople Creek, 167.
  29. Andrew S. Dolkart, "Report of the Landmarks Preservation Commission" (16 September 1997) re: John and Elizabeth Truslow House, p. 7,
  30. William Henry Hoople was survived only by his daughter, Mary Elizabeth Brinckerhoff (born 1821; died April 1910 in New York), to whom he left his personal estate of $327,500 and real estate worth $50,000, and his country home (Longue Vue) on Broadway at Hastings-on-Hudson. See The Long Island Farmer (Jamaica, NY) (28 June 1895):8, and "William H. Hoople's Will" (3 September 2008), (accessed 15 November 2009). On 29 April 1858 Mary Elizabeth Hoople married T.W. Van Wyck Brinckerhoff (born 24 December 1826 at New Hamburg, New York; died 25 February 1892 at New York city]) (see "MARRIED", The New York Times (30 April 1858):5), who was the head of the Brinckerhoff Cracker Company. See "Descendants of Wolphert Gerretse Van Kouwenhoven", Mary's will distributed an estate of between $2 and 7 million (see "ROW OVER WOMAN'S MILLIONS; Heirs Contend That Mrs. Brinckerhoff's Will Is Not Valid", Special to The New York Times (26 July 1910):14), including $2,000 to provide for two of her coach horses (Jessie and Fannie) until their death (see "LEFT FUND FOR HER HORSES.; Mrs. Brinckerhoff Willed $2,000 for Their Care Until They Die", The New York Times (28 July 1910):7; "BRINCKERHOFF SUIT TO-DAY.; Contest Over Dead Woman's Millions May Be Settled, However", Special to The New York Times (14 November 1910):11. Longue Vue was eventually sold and became a fashionable restaurant and inn. See Nancy Caruso, "Longue Vue Revisited", Hastings Historian 31:2 (Spring 2001):1,; "Hastings’ Famous Longue Vue Restaurant", Hastings Historian (November 1983). It is now the site of the Andrus Memorial Home (see Hastings Historical Society, Hastings-on-Hudson (Images of America) (Arcadia Publishing, 2008):17; (8 October 2009)).
  31. Dolkart, 7. This property was purchased from Richard J. Chard in September 1902, along with a similar building at the adjacent 271 Water Street at the same time. See "IN THE REAL ESTATE FIELD", The New York Times (September 12, 1902):14. In June 1902 the firm leased a property at 171 Front Street. See "IN THE REAL ESTATE FIELD", The New York Times (June 7, 1902):14.
  32. Norcross, 147–148, 172–173.
  33. "Another Brooklyn Enterprise", Brooklyn Eagle (Friday, January 4, 1884):4; "New York Leather Belting Co", Brooklyn Eagle (Sunday, January 6, 1884):4; (accessed November 15, 2009).
  34. Source Citation: Year: 1880; Census Place: Queens, New York City-Greater, New York; Roll T9_918; Family History Film: 1254918; Page: 504.3000; Enumeration District: 274; Image: 0222.; Source Citation: Year: 1900; Census Place: Queens Ward 4, Queens, New York; Roll T623_1150; Page: 4B; Enumeration District: 685; New York City Deaths, 1892–1902 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: The Generations Network, Inc., 2003. Original data: New York Department of Health. Deaths reported in the city of New York, 1888–1965. New York, USA: Department of Health.
  35. Directory of Directors in the City of New York (Audit Co., 1907):304.
  36. The New York Times (30 December 1908):8; The Brooklyn City and Business Directory 1879–80, 472; See Meyer Brothers Druggist 29 (C.F.G. Meyer, 1908):37 for large advertisement outlining their products.
  37. "RAYMOND BARNES, EPISCOPAL OFFICIAL; Treasurer of L. I. Diocese 23 Years Is Dead", The New York Times (11 August 1949):23; "GOOD WORK RUINS FIRM.; Petition Filed Against J. Finley Smith & Son, Brush Manufacturers", New York Times (2 February 1909):4.
  38. "IN THE REAL ESTATE FIELD.; Congressman Cockran a Referee", The New York Times (28 September 1893):7.
  39. "IN THE REAL ESTATE FIELD; Yesterday's Dealings by Brokers – Plaintiffs the Only Buyers at Auction", The New York Times (August 28, 1897):10. The building has been demolished and it is now the site of an Edison car park across the road from the Five Points Restaurant (31 Great Jones Street). For a 1942 photo of the building, see Christopher Grey, "In NoHo, a Quiet Block Stirs", The New York Times (March 23, 2008),
  40. Norcross, 29; "The Political Graveyard", (accessed November 15, 2009); "House of the Day: 405 Clinton Avenue" (September 16, 2008),; (accessed November 15, 2009).
  41. "ANNUAL BANK ELECTIONS", The New York Times (January 13, 1897):12; Norcross, 146.
  42. The Pharmaceutical Era 41 (1909):24.
  43. The Brooklyn City and Business Directory 1879–80, 472.
  44. 44.0 44.1 44.2 Miller, 34.
  45. John N. Ingham, ed., "Charles Pratt", in Biographical Dictionary of American Business Leaders (Greenwood Publishing Group, 1983):1113; Philip J. Bigger, Negotiator: The Life and Career of James B. Donovan (Lehigh University Press, 2006):193; The Story of Pratt Institute, 1887–1937 (Pratt Institute, 1937); "The History of Pratt",; Fern Oram, ed., Peterson's Four-Year Colleges 38th ed. (Peterson's, 2007):2032.
  46. Brooklyn Directory, 1888–89.
  47. Timothy L. Smith, Called Unto Holiness, 53,; Stan Ingersol, "Across a Century: The Heritage of the Association of Pentecostal Churches of America",; Miller, 34.
  48. Brooklyn, New York Directories, 1888–1890 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: The Generations Network, Inc., 2000. Original data: Brooklyn Directory, 1888–89. Brooklyn, NY: Lain & Co., 1889; Brooklyn Directory, 1889–90. Brooklyn, NY: Lain & Co., 1890; William H. Hoople Location 1: 50 Ferry N. Y. Location 2: 1475 Pacific Occupation: leather Year: 1889, 1890 City: Brooklyn; State: NY; Norcross, 173; Basil Miller indicates it was 50 Terry Street, see Miller, 34.
  49. "A Large Long Island Estate", Brooklyn Eagle (Friday, June 28, 1895):7; Norcross, 29; The Long Island Farmer (Jamaica, NY) (June 28, 1895):8, see "William H. Hoople's Will" (September 3, 2008), (accessed November 15, 2009).
  50. 50.0 50.1 Syracuse Herald-American (June 26, 1966).
  51. Her gravestone indicates an 1865 birth date. Victoria was the daughter of Robert Cranford, Jr. (born c. 1836 in England; died after 1870, possibly in Chicago), a dry goods merchant who became a naturalized US citizen on June 19, 1855 in Brooklyn (see Naturalization Date: Jun 19, 1855 Former Nationality: Queen United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Title and Location of Court: City Court, Brooklyn, New York Volume: 18 Record Number: 139), and Anna L. (born 1827 in Newfoundland). See 1870 US Federal Census, 1880 US Federal Census. See Miller, 2, 34; Ingersol, "Across a Century". Another source indicates erroneously that her name was Victoria Crawford. See Nazarene Roots, 84, Victoria was living in Syracuse, New York as late as December 21, 1940. See Syracuse Herald.
  52. Syracuse Herald-Journal (April 11, 1952).
  53. US Passport Application, March 26, 1896.
  54. 54.0 54.1 54.2 Ingersol, "Century".
  55. The Lyre of Alpha Chi Omega 33:3 (Alpha Chi Omega, 1930):460.
  56. U.S. Passport Applications, 1795–1925 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: The Generations Network, Inc., 2007. Passport Applications, January 2, 1906 – March 31, 1925 (M1490) US Passport Application, Ruth A. Hoople, November 2, 1919, Mukden, China; Florence A. Armstrong and Mabel Harriet Siller, History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity (1885–1921) 3rd ed. (George Banta Pub. Co., 1922):373; Archie R. Crouch, Christianity in China: A Scholars's Guide to Resources in the Libraries and Archives of the United States (M.E. Sharpe, 1989):282.
  57. The Lyre of Alpha Chi Omega 25 (Alpha Chi Omega., 1921):457; Richard Lee Phillips, Donald G. Wright, and Lawrence Myers (Jr.), Hendricks Chapel: Seventy-Five years of Service to Syracuse University (Syracuse University Press, 2005):155; Milton Theobald Stauffer, ed., Christian Students and World Problems: Report of the Ninth International Convention of the Student Volunteer Movement for Foreign Missions, Indianapolis, Indiana, December 28, 1923, to January 1, 1924 (Student Volunteer Movement for Foreign Missions, 1924):477; Crouch, 296; Who's Who of American Women. 2nd ed. 1961–1962. (Wilmette, IL: Marquis Who's Who, 1961):476. (WhoAmW 2).
  58. "William C. Hoople", The New York Times (September 3, 1943):19; Peter Hastings Falk, ed., Who Was Who in American Art, 1564–1975: 400 Years of Artists in America, 3 Vols. (Madison, CT: Sound View Press, 1999); Lonnie Pierson Dunbier, ed., The Artists Bluebook: 34,000 North American Artists to March 2005 (Scottsdale, AZ :,; Glenn Opitz, ed., Dictionary of American Artists (1982).
  59. Sigma Phi Epsilon Journal 13 (1915):338. One source indicates her family name was Laudenberg. See In the 1930 US Federal Census her name is given as Marjory. They had two children: William Clifford Hoople, Jr. (born March 1917 in New York, New York), who married M.J. Beck; and Evelyn Hoople (born September 1918) in New York, who married Harley Fetzer. See 1920 US Federal Census, Census Place: Brooklyn Assembly District 10, Kings, New York; Roll T625_1160; Page: 4B; Enumeration District: 1642; Image: 213.
  61. Robert Frederick Herrick and Frederick Brittain, Red Top: Reminiscences of Harvard Rowing (Harvard University):156–157; "The FictionMags Index",
  62. Dorye Roettger, Rivals of Rockwell (Crescent, 1992.
  63. "Dr. Gordon D. Hoople, Specialist In Rehabilitation of Deaf, Is Dead", Special to The New York Times (5 June 1973):44; Durward Howes, ed., Who's Who Among the Young Men of the Nation, Vol. 1 (Richard Blank Pub. Co., 1934):285; Science Magazine 181 (American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1973):472.
  64. "Persons Honored in the Painted Portraits on Display in the Health Sciences Library",
  65. "Awards and Honors: The George Arents Pioneer Medal",
  66. The Lyre of Alpha Chi Omega 25 (Alpha Chi Omega., 1921):218; Richard Lee Phillips, Donald G. Wright, and Lawrence Myers (Jr.), Hendricks Chapel: Seventy-Five years of Service to Syracuse University (Syracuse University Press, 2005):8–9, 192; Sigma Phi Epsilon journal 19 (1921):43, 326; William Freeman Galpin, Richard Wilson, and Oscar Theodore Barck, Syracuse University Vol. 1 (Syracuse University Press, 1960):451; "New Chairman Named By Syracuse Trustees", The New York Times (May 28, 1960); "Hoople-Dolittle", Syracuse Herald (Syracuse, New York) (June 29, 1929):8; Milton Theobald Stauffer, ed., Christian Students and World Problems: Report of the Ninth International Convention of the Student Volunteer Movement for Foreign Missions, Indianapolis, Indiana, December 28, 1923, to January 1, 1924 (Student Volunteer Movement for Foreign Missions, 1924):511; The Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders 22:5 (American Speech and Hearing Association, 1957):734; American Men of Medicine (Institute for Research in Biography, Inc., 1952):490; "Awards and Honors: Recipient of Honorary Degrees",
  67. British Medical Journal (1944):299.
  68. "News and Announcements", Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders (1953):219,; "SU Buildings: Hoople Special Education Building",; Jeffrey Gorney, Syracuse University: An Architectural Guide (Syracuse University Press, 2006):96.
  69. For a portrait of Gordon D Hoople, see "Persons Honored in the Painted Portraits on Display in the Health Sciences Library",
  70. '"Tot"'s Father to Dedicate Church", Syracuse Herald (Syracuse, New York) (November 7, 1921):10.
  71. Maine Death Index, 1960–1997, Town: Damariscotta Certificate: 7706174.
  72. Sigma Phi Epsilon Journal 19 (1921):43. They had two sons: Howard C. "Totsie" Hoople, Jr. (born about 1923), who became a medical doctor (see Hoople Creek, 133) who purchased the Wolcott Hospital in 1949, and operated it as the Wolcott Medical Center from 1967 until his retirement on June 30, 1991, see Frank Horton, "A TRIBUTE TO DR. HOWARD HOOPLE", House of Representatives (July 24, 1991),; and Theodore Gordon Hoople (born July 2, 1924). See Allen P. Splete, Boats and Boating on Cranberry Lake (Images of America) (Arcadia Publishing, 2009):57; William Pearson Tolley, At the Fountain of Youth: Memoirs of a College President (Syracuse University, 1989):18–19,155.
  73. US Federal Census 1930, Syracuse, NY.
  74. His son Theodore G. Hoople was listed as the director, see The Maine Register and State Reference Book (Masters, Smith & Co., 1959):226, 231.; The Camping Magazine 21–22 (American Camping Association, 1949):21; Maine Register, State Year-Book and Legislative Manual, Issue 97 (F. L. Tower Companies, 1965):239; "History of our Camp",; The Episcopalian 130 (1965):55–56; Porter Sargent, The Guide to Summer Camps and Summer Schools (P. Sargent., 1965):61, 246; Hoople Creek, 133.
  75. Source Citation: US Federal Census Year: 1900; Census Place: Brooklyn Ward 24, Kings, New York; Roll T623_1062; Page: 11A; Enumeration District: 418, page 27.
  76. Source Citation: Registration Location: Kings County, New York; Roll 1754592; Draft Board: 65. Source Information: World War I Draft Registration Cards, 1917–1918 ; "DR. ROSS E. HOOPLE; Philosophy Professor, Long at Syracuse University, Dies", Special to The New York Times (June 19, 1946):18; The Journal of Philosophy 43:14 (July 4, 1946):391–392; School & Society 63 (Society for the Advancement of Education, 1946):458.
  77. The Harvard University Catalogue (C.W. Sever, 1922):150.
  78. New York Times(April 21, 1926):21; "Hoople-Pearsall", The New York Times (June 20, 1926); Syracuse Herald Journal (November 23, 1958) :23. At the time of Ruth's death, there were three surviving children: William H. Hoople; Robin Pearsall Hoople (born about 1921; died June 28, 2006), see; and Donald G. Hoople
  79. Ross Hoople was still at SU by 1941, see Richard Lee Phillips, Donald G. Wright, and Lawrence Myers (Jr.), Hendricks Chapel: Seventy-Five years of Service to Syracuse University (Syracuse University Press, 2005):52, 93; Sigma Phi Epsilon 19 (1921):377; Ross Earle Hoople, Raymond Frank Piper, and William Pearson Tolley, Preface to Philosophy: Book of Readings (The Macmillan company, 1946).
  80. Source Citation: Number: 093-07-5721;Issue State: New York; Issue Date: Before 1951; Source Information: Social Security Death Index [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Operations Inc, 2009. Original data: Social Security Administration. Social Security Death Index, Master File. Social Security Administration., see U.S. Public Records Index [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: The Generations Network, Inc., 2009. Original data: Merlin Data Publishing Corporation, comp. Historical Residential White Page, Directory Assistance and Other Household Database Listings. Merlin Data Publishing Corporation, 215 South Complex Drive, Kalispell, MT 59901. Robert B Hoople Address: 16 Frederick Rd, Binghamton, New York 13901-0101 (1990) [816 Westmoreland Av, Syracuse, New York 13210-1001 (1986)]
  81. He married Almeda Dolittle (June 23, 1904; November 14, 1988) on June 29, 1929, see The Trident of Delta Delta Delta 39: 2 (1930); "Hoople-Dolittle", Syracuse Herald (Syracuse, New York) (June 29, 1929):8; "Almeda Doolittle Bride of R.B. Hoople", Special to The New York Times (June 30, 1929):24;
  82. Miller, 35. Hoople's US passport application on March 26, 1896 indicates he was 6 feet 2 inches tall, see U.S. Passport Applications, 1795–1925 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: The Generations Network, Inc., 2007., Passport Applications, 1795–1905 (M1372); while his passport application in May 1918 indicates he was 6 feet 3 1/2 inches tall then, see U.S. Passport Applications, 1795–1925 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: The Generations Network, Inc., 2007. Passport Applications, January 2, 1906 – March 31, 1925 (M1490).
  83. Another source indicates that at the General Assembly of the Pentecostal Church of the Nazarene at Pilot Point, Texas in October 1908, Hoople weighed 275 pounds. See Debbie Salter Goodwin, "THE HALLELUJAH MARCH: A Centennial Sketch for Presentation by Children".
  84. 84.0 84.1 Bruce Herald, "Saw Heaven in a Trance: A Tale of Pentecostal Vision", Rōrahi XXVIII, Putanga 2880 (27 Hōngongoi 1897):3,
  85. "WE'LL MAKE THE DEVIL HUM"; SO SANG LIEUT. PEAKE AT THE CAMP MEETING AT NANNET", The New York Times (July 21, 1893):8,; "Central Congregational Church",
  86. Smith, Called, 53.
  87. Eugene Clark Worman, History of the Brooklyn and Queens Young Men's Christian Association, 1853–1949 (Association Press, 1952):63.
  88. While some sources indicate the Moody-Sankey meetings in Brooklyn were in January 1886 (see Basil Miller, Twelve Early Nazarenes, Chapter 9 (Kansas City, MO: Nazarene Publishing House, 1941):34,; Duane V. Maxey, comp., "How They Entered Canaan (A Collection of Holiness Experience Accounts)", Vol. 1 (n.d.):1–2,, contemporaneous accounts indicate that the meetings were held at 8 pm each evening for a week from December 8, 1895. See Brooklyn Eagle: December 6, 1885 (page 1), December 8, 1885 (page 3), December 9, 1885 (page 2), December 10, 1885 (page 1), December 11, 1885 (page 1), December 13, 1885 (page 12), December 14, 1885 (page 3), and December 27, 1885 (page 4).
  89. 89.0 89.1 "Mr. Hoople's Unique Church", Brooklyn Eagle (Friday, February 1, 1895):12.
  90. The Nazarene Messenger 12 (1907):3.
  91. "Current Church News", Brooklyn Eagle (Saturday, March 9, 1895):4.
  92. Miller, 33.
  93. E.D. Messer, comp., "Early Nazarene Leaders", The Preacher's Magazine (September 1933):296,
  94. "Religious Notices", Brooklyn Eagle (Saturday, March 4, 04, 1893):6.
  95. "Educational Work", Brooklyn Eagle (Wednesday, March 25, 1891):4; "Christian Endeavor", Brooklyn Eagle (Friday, October 30, 1891):4.
  96. "Not Relaxing Its Energies", Brooklyn Eagle (Sunday, July 19, 1891):19; "Church Items", Brooklyn Eagle (Sunday, July 19):17.
  97. Named for Samuel Hopkins Hadley (born May 1848 in Massachusetts; died February 9, 1906), superintendent of America's first rescue mission, the Jerry McAuley Mission at 316 Water Street, New York, from 1886 to his death. See John Wilbur Chapman, S. H. Hadley of Water Street: A Miracle of Grace (1906; reprint: BiblioBazaar, LLC, 2008):181; "Died", The New York Times (February 12, 1906):7,; "No. 316", Time (November 22, 1926),,9171,722767,00.html; Arthur Bonner, Jerry McAuley and His Mission, (New York, NY: Loizeaux Brothers, 1990).
  98. 98.0 98.1 98.2 Miller, 36.
  99. Probably the November 1895 meetings held in Ward 26 in Brooklyn (see Ford C. Ottman, J. Wilbur Chapman: A Biography (Doubleday Page, 1920):85) or possibly the meetings held in New York City from December 28, 1910. See PARTIAL LIST OF JOHN WILBUR CHAPMAN CAMPAIGNS, "Papers of John Wilbur Chapman – Collection 77",
  100. "To Give Men New Starts: What the Industrial Christian Alliance Will Do", The New York Times (June 19, 1891):8,
  102. "CELEBRATED ITS BIRTHDAY.; Thanksgiving at the Home of the Industrial Christian Alliance", The New York Times (December 1, 1893):8,
  103. The Quarterly Journal of Economics 8 (Published for Harvard University by the MIT Press, 1894):176; William Howe Tolman and William I Hull, Handbook of Sociological Information (reprint: BiblioBazaar, LLC, 2009):148.
  104. "MORE ROOM FOR ITS GOOD WORK.; Industrial Christian Alliance in New and Commodious Quarters", The New York Times (May 1, 1893):9,
  105. "INDUSTRIAL CHRISTIAN ALLIANCE WORK; Cheap Restaurants for the Poor Opened for the Winter Season", The New York Times (December 8, 1894):9,; The Quarterly Journal of Economics 8 (Published for Harvard University by the MIT Press, 1894):464; William Howe Tolman and William I Hull, Handbook of Sociological Information: With Especial Reference to New York City (G.B. Putnam's Sons, 1894):48.
  106. ; "Record of a Noble Charity", The New York Times (April 22, 1894)21,
  107. "URGENTLY IN NEED OF FUNDS; The Industrial Christian Alliance Appeals for Aid in Its Work." The New York Times (November 23, 1894):18,
  108. Katherine Bevier, The Bevier Family: A History of the Descendants of Louis Bevier (Higginson Book Company, 1916):221; Ernest Alexander Girvin, Phineas F. Bresee: A Prince in Israel, A Biography (Pentecostal Nazarene Pub. House, 1916):322; Ingersol, "Century".
  109. Smith, Called, 53; Ingersol, "Century".
  110. Smith, Called, 53; Floyd Cunningham, ed., Our Watchword and Song: The Centennial History of the Church of the Nazarene (Kansas City, MO: Beacon Hill Press of Kansas City, 2009):61; Miller, 34.
  111. 111.0 111.1 111.2 Redford, 30.
  112. "WE'LL MAKE THE DEVIL HUM"; SO SANG LIEUT. PEAKE AT THE CAMP MEETING AT NANNET", The New York Times (July 21, 1893):8, The NYT indicates erroneously it was at "Nannet".
  113. Behrends was the pastor of the Central Congregational Church from 1883 until his death, see Dolkart, 4, 7.
  114. "Mrs. Haeslip Was Dropped", Brooklyn Eagle (Tuesday, October 24, 1893):10.
  115. 115.0 115.1 "Across a Century: The Heritage of the Association of Pentecostal Churches of America",
  116. Brooklyn Eagle (February 1, 1895):12. His 1896 US Passport application indicates he was still a leather merchant.
  117. Smith, Called, 53; Ingersol, "Century"; Cunningham, 61; Miller, 35.
  118. Redford, 30–31; Smith, Called, 53; Ingersol, "Century"; Cunningham, 61; Miller, 35.
  119. Fred Parker, "Those Early Nazarenes Cared: Compassionate Ministries of the Nazarenes", Preachers Magazine, (n.d.):32R,
  120. Charles Edwin Jones, The Wesleyan Holiness Movement: A Comprehensive Guide, 2 vols. (Oxford, UK: Scarecrow Press, 2005), 2:1420.
  121. 121.0 121.1 Brooklyn Eagle (February 1, 1895):12.
  122. Manual of the Utica Avenue Pentecostal Church of Brooklyn, N.Y. (1904):2,; The New York Times (January 20, 1915):9. Redford says incorrectly it was Richard Ryans, see p. 31.
  123. Redford, 31,; Directory of Social Agencies of New York (Charity Organization Society of the City of New York., 1922):348.
  124. "Brooklyn Realty Matters", The New York Times (April 22, 1894):12; Norcross, 173; Redford, 31.
  125. See Manual of the Pentecostal Church of the Nazarene (Los Angeles, CA: Nazarene Publishing Company, 1907):11,; Redford, 31; however Hoople indicates in his interview in the Brooklyn Eagle (February 1, 1895) that "in June we moved into our present quarters on Utica avenue" (page 12).
  126. Smith says it was 37, but Redford and Miller both say it was 32. See Smith, 53; Redford, 31.
  127. see Redford, 1948:100; Smith, 53; Cunningham, 61; Ingersol, "Century"
  128. "Saturday Church News", Brooklyn Eagle (Saturday, June 9, 1894):5; Utica Avenue Manual:2
  129. 129.0 129.1 Redford, 31.
  130. William Cathcart, ed., "Levy, Edgar Mortimer, D.D." in The Baptist Encyclopedia Vol. 2 (reprint ed.: The Baptist Standard Bearer, Inc., 2001; 1881):689; "The Rev. Edgar M. Levy", The New York Times (October 31, 1906),
  131. William Kostlevy and Gari-Anne Patzwald, Historical Dictionary of the Holiness Movement (Scarecrow Press, 2001):39; Edward Davies, The Illustrated History of the Douglas Camp Meeting (Boston, MA: McDonald, Gill & Co., c.1890),
  132. Ingersol, "Century"; Utica Ave. Manual (1904):2.
  133. "Holiness Association Formed", The New York Times (December 23, 1894):12,; Smith, Called, 53.
  134. "Mr. Hoople's Unique Church", Brooklyn Eagle (Friday, February 1, 1895):12; Timothy L. Smith, Called Unto Holiness: The Story of the Nazarenes (Kansas City, MO: Nazarene),, p. 53; M.E. Redford, The Rise of the Church of the Nazarene, 3rd rev. ed. (Kansas City, MO: Nazarene, 1974),, p.31.
  135. The Nazarene Messenger 12 (1907):3.; Redford, 31.
  136. Ingersol, "Century"; Cunningham, 61.
  137. "Mr. Hoople's Unique Church", Brooklyn Eagle (February 1, 1895):12.
  138. Ibid.
  139. Christian Witness, January 3 and February 21, 1895, quoted in Smith, 53 (
  140. Hoople, "Mr. Hoople's Unique Church", Brooklyn Eagle (February 1, 1895):12.
  141. Sloat was the fifth son and ninth child of Henry Cork (or Corkey) Sloat (born April 2, 1842 in Pine Bush, New York; died August 28, 1906) and Laura Parmeley (or Parmlee) (born October 26, 1841; died 1904). See David Eugene Sloat, "The Sloat Family", Sloat was converted at age 18, called to preach as a child. See Secretary of the Alumni Association, Alumni Record of Drew Theological Seminary 1867–1905, (S. G. Ayres, 1906):426. Attended Centennial Collegiate Institute, Brooklyn Polytechnic School. See Alumni, 426. When he became pastor of the Emmanuel Pentecostal Tabernacle, Sloat was not married at the time. He married Mary Emma Rhodes 26 (born January 1875) on October 22, 1897. One source indicates it was October 27, 1897, see Alumni, 426. Sloat and his wife had four children: Florence (born March 12, 1899), Raymond L. (listed as Aymos in one source) (born June 27, 1900), Frederick Parmlee (born February 12, 1906) and Lester (1908–1910). See David Eugene Sloat, "The Sloat Family",, and US Federal Census 1910. By 1900 Sloat was pastor of an APCA Church in Middle Smithfield Township, Monroe County, Pennsylvania. See US Federal Census 1900. By 1901 Sloat had left the APCA and was serving as a supply pastor for the Methodist Episcopal church, see Minutes of the Newark Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church (The Conference, 1901):17, 24, 104. Sloat graduated from Drew Theological Seminary in Madison, New Jersey in 1904. See Alumni, 426. Also in 1904 he transferred his ministerial credentials to the Methodist Episcopal Church where he was recognised as a deacon and was appointed pastor for two years of the ME Church at Barryville, New York (now Highlands, New York) on the Newark District. See "NEWARK CONFERENCE CHANGES", Special to The New York Times (March 30, 1904):7. In March 1906 he was ordained as an elder in the ME Church. See Minutes of the Newark Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church (The Conference, 1906):9, 37, and appointed for two years to Rockland Lake and Congers (1907–1908), and then for four years to the Summit Avenue ME Church, Jersey City (1909–1913), see Minutes of the Newark Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church (The Conference, 1911):157; In 1916 Sloat was elected to a four-year term on the Board of Examiners. See Minutes of the Newark Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church (The Conference, 1916):11. From 1927 to 1932 Sloat was pastor of the ME Church at Somerville, New Jersey.
  142. The Nazarene Messenger 12 (1907); Ingersol, "Century"; Cunningham, 61; Redford, 31. This church relocated to the former Monroe St. P.M. Church at Monroe Street and Stuyvesant Avenue on March 21, 1897, with Sloat still serving as pastor. See "The Emmanual Pentecostal Church" The Brooklyn Eagle (March 20, 1897):8.
  143. Smith, 54; M.E. Redford, The Rise of the Church of the Nazarene, 4th ed. (Kansas City, MO: Beacon Hill Press of Kansas City, 1948, 1965, 1971, 1974):30,
  144. The others were A.M. Owens, O.J. Copeland, and Harry Elsner. See "In State Departments", Brooklyn Eagle (Wednesday, April 8, 1896):7.
  145. 145.0 145.1 145.2 Ingersol, "Across a Century".
  146. Smith, 54.
  147. Manual, PCON (1907):12; Smith, Called, 55.
  148. Cunningham, "Watchword", 63.
  149. Cunningham, 63; Smith, Called, 61.
  150. 150.0 150.1 Smith, Called, 61.
  151. "The Goodales' Story of Pentecostal Tabernacle Sanctifications; Mr. Hoople's Strange Power", Brooklyn Eagle (Friday, May 14, 1897):16.
  152. "Trances at Revival Services; Unusual Happenings at the Pentecostal Tabernacle at Utica Ave.", Brooklyn Eagle (Tuesday, May 11, 1897):16.
  153. Mrs. Elsinore, quoted in Ibid.
  154. Paulin Vauclair quoted in Bruce Herald, "Saw Heaven in a Trance: A Tale of Pentecostal Vision", Rōrahi XXVIII, Putanga 2880, (27 Hōngongoi 1897):3,
  155. 155.0 155.1 Herald, op. cit.
  156. "Rites of the Pentecostals", Brooklyn Eagle (May 12, 1897):3.
  157. See "Church Dedication", The Brooklyn Eagle (May 27, 1897):5. Among the clergymen of the APCA at that time were W.H. Hoople (spelled Whoople), H.N. Brown, John Norberry (spelled Narberry), F.W. Sloat, Charles Bevier (all of Brooklyn); H.F. Reynolds, New York; F.W. Weed, North Scituate, Massachusetts; A.R. Eagan, Good Ground (now Hampton Bays, New York); Isaac Rumsen, Jamaica, Queens; Andrew Pattie, Noank, Connecticut; and Charles P. Pattie, Norwich, Connecticut. Charles A. Renney was to be ordained pastor of the Sag Harbor congregation.
  158. Hiram F. Reynolds, Herald of Holiness (October 11, 1933):4, quoted in "MISSIONARY REVIVALIST SELECTIONS From the May, 1961 Issue of The Missionary Revivalist Official Organ Of The Bible Missionary Church, Inc.", (Digital Edition August 14, 2000):4–5,
  159. PCI was incorporated in Rhode Island in January 1903 by Fred A. Hillery, Henry N. Brown, William H. Bache, Henry M. Randall, and Frank L. Sprague, see Rhode Island, Acts and Resolves Passed by the General Assembly, 174–175. The Act was passed by the General Assembly of Rhode Island on April 17, 1903.
  160. "Movement is Extending", Brooklyn Eagle (Friday, February 23, 1900):15; "Brooklyn Forward Movement", Brooklyn Eagle (Monday, March 5, 1900):15.
  161. "The 'Forward Movement'; Methodist Will Extend the Work on the East Side of the City", The New York Times (May 7, 1898):5.
  162. "A Temperance Rally", Brooklyn Eagle (Wednesday, October 23, 1901):12.
  163. Utica Manual 1904:2.
  164. Smith, Called, 65; Miller, 35.
  165. 165.0 165.1 Smith, Called, 65.
  166. Hosley was married to Caroline E. "Carrie" Hosley (born August 1860; died 1953) by 1892 and had one daughter, Annie E. Hosley (born 1885). After a career as a huckster and a Real Estate agent, Hosley became a Methodist minister in 1893 and was appointed to the Wesley Chapel in Viola, New York at the Methodist Episcopal Conference at Newark, New Jersey in April 1895, see "M.E. PASTORS APPOINTED; The Newark Conference at Tottenville Ended Yesterday. WOMEN NOT YET TO BE ADMITTED", The New York Times (April 10, 1895):7. Later in 1895 he left the Methodists, and became the founding pastor of the APCA church at Spring Haven, New York. See "The Rev. H.B. Hosley Installed as Pastor", The Washington Times (December 29, 1902):4, From 1898 Hosley pastored the APCA church at Cliftondale, Massachusetts. See "Cemeteries of Fairfax County, Virginia", Hosley Family Cemetery, 3921 Old Mill Rd., Alexandria, Va.: "The land transfer from H. B. and CARRIE E. HOSLEY to Wesleyan Pentecostal Church on Dec. 16, 1923 (Db F9:543) reserves a 20' x 50' burial ground from the sale. The cemetery is located 20' to the rear of the current McLaughlin Farm United Methodist Church. It is surrounded by a low chain fence and has four holly trees in and around the area. There is one granite monument inscribed front and back. The cemetery is clean and well maintained". Surveyed 4/6/94 by Brian A. Conley. HOSLEY: I have fought a good fight, I have finished my race, I have kept the faith... Pastor HENRY B. HOSLEY 1862–1925 His Beloved Wife CAROLINE E. HOSLEY 1859–1953.
  167. David William Bebbington, The Gospel in the World: International Baptist Studies (Paternoster Press, 2002):93.
  168. David W. Bebbington, Evangelicalism in Modern Britain: A History from the 1730s to the 1980s (Routledge, 1989):178.
  169. Brooklyn Eagle (Saturday, December 12, 1896):8; E.D. Messer, comp., "Early Nazarene Leaders", The Preacher's Magazine (September 1933):296,; W.T. Purkiser, Called Unto Holiness: The Story of the Nazarenes Vol. 2 (Kansas City, MO: Nazarene, 1983):70; Ingersol, "Century"; Brooklyn Daily Eagle Almanac (1912):334.
  170. The Nazarene Messenger 12 (1907); E. A. Girvin, PHINEAS F. BRESEE: A PRINCE IN ISRAEL (Kansas City, MO: Nazarene, 1916), Digital Edition (April 8, 1995):173–174,; New York Charities Directory: An Authoritative Classified and Descriptive Directory to the Philanthropic, Educational and Religious Resources of the City of New York (Charity Organization Society in the City of New York, 1920):505. Some sources indicate that there was a subsequent relocation to the corner of Hopkinson Avenue and McDonough Street, Brooklyn.
  171. Girvin, 174.
  172. Girvin, 175.
  173. Girvin, 175; Cunningham, 148–149; Miller, 36.
  174. See Smith, Called, 130; Charles R. Millhuff, "THE CHANGING ROLE OF THE FULL-TIME ITINERANT EVANGELIST IN THE CHURCH OF THE NAZARENE SERVING THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA", a dissertation presented the Doctor of Ministry Committee, Nazarene Theological Seminary, (April 23, 1994):61,
  175. "Editorial Notes", The Preacher's Magazine 8:9 (September 1933):292,
  176. Cunningham, 143.
  177. William Howard Hoople, Beulah Christian (February 23, 1907):8.
  178. Hoople (February 23, 1907):8; Cunningham, 148.
  179. 179.0 179.1 Hoople, Beulah Christian (April 20, 1907):5; Cunningham, 150.
  180. "Merging Religious Bodies: Documentary Sources on the History of Ten Nazarene Parent Bodies: A Guide to the Microfilm Contents" (Kansas City, MO: Nazarene Archives):1,
  181. Cunningham, 151.
  182. Donald P. Brickley, Man of the Morning: The Life and Work of Phineas F. Bresee (Kansas City, MO: Nazarene, 1960):111,
  183. Brickley, 111.
  184. Cunningham, 151–152.
  185. Ingersol, "Century"; C.T. Corbett, Our Pioneer Nazarenes (Kansas City, MO: Nazarene Publishing House, 1958):10,; Miller, 36; William Howard Hoople, "New York District", Nazarene Messenger (November 18, 1908):9,
  186. Charles Brougher Jernigan, Pioneer Days of the Holiness Movement in the Southwest (Kansas City, MO: Pentecostal Nazarene Publishing House, 1919):93,
  187. Smith,, 174.
  188. Cunningham, 161.
  189. W.T. Purkiser, Called Unto Holiness: The Story of the Nazarenes Vol. 2 (Kansas City, MO: Nazarene, 1983):70; Ingersol, "Century"; Brooklyn Daily Eagle Almanac (1912):334.
  190. Nazarene Messenger (November 18, 1908):25; US Federal Census Year: 1910; Census Place: Brooklyn Ward 24, Kings, New York; Roll T624_974; Page: 1B; Enumeration District: 626; Image: 768, page 2.
  191. NEW YORK CHARITIES DIRECTORY (1911):686, 707.
  192. See Jones 2:918. Bearse was the son of Isaac J. Bearse (born about 1834), a fisherman, and Susan J. Bearse (born about 1837). See 1870 Federal Census and 1900 US Federal Census. Bearse married Meta H. Clark (born 17 July 1878 in New Brunswick) when she was only 15. See 1930 US Federal Census: Source Citation: Year: 1930; Census Place: South Portland, Cumberland, Maine; Roll 832; Page: 4A; Enumeration District: 99; Image: 243.0. Bearse was a special student at Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island from 1894 to 1895, see Mary Drew Vaughan, ed., Historical Catalogue of Brown University, 1764–1904 (Pub. by the University, 1905):693. From 1895 to 1905 Bearse was pastor of the APCA Church at Malden, Massachusetts, then pastor at Cliftondale, Massachusetts from 1905 to 1910, before accepting the invitation to be associate pastor in Brooklyn (1910–1913). From 1914 to 1916, Bearse was principal of PCI, before serving as pastor at Mattapoisett, Massachusetts (1916–1917). See Louise Bauer and William Thomson Hastings, eds., The Historical Catalogue of Brown University, 1764–1934 (The University, 1936):412. By 1936 Bearse was a graduate of the Boston School of Theology. See, Brown University (1936):412. Eventually Bearse left the denomination to become a Methodist clergyman. By 1928 Bearse was the pastor of the Methodist Episcopal church in South Portland, Maine. See Minutes of the Annual Conferences of the Methodist Episcopal Church (T. Mason and G. Lane for the Methodist Episcopal Church, 1929):181, and Maine Legislature, Legislative Record, Vol. 85 (s.n., 1931):299.
  194. Nazarene Roots, 82,
  195. "ABANDONS HER HOME TO CHANGE RELIGION; Father of Jewess Converted to Christianity Takes Her Case to Court", The New York Times (6 May 1913):4; US Federal Census 1910, Census Place: Bridgeport, Fairfield, Connecticut; Roll T624_128; Page: 1A; Enumeration District: 26; Image: 962. She was reunited with her parents, See US Federal Census 1920, Census Place: Brooklyn Assembly District 22, Kings, New York; Roll T625_1179; Page: 4A; Enumeration District: 1409; Image: 958.
  196. Cunningham, Watchword, 161.
  197. Samuel Walker Strickland, A NEW LOOK AT REV. J. O. McCLURKAN (Nashville, TN: The Parthenon Press, 1960; Digital Edition (2 October 1996), Holiness Data Ministry):29,
  198. Girvin, 250.
  199. Smith, Called, 57,
  200. "The Rev. H.B. Hosley Installed as Pastor", The Washington Times (29 December 1902):4,
  201. Smith, 190.
  202. Cunningham, Watchword, 199; Smith, 190.
  203. Brickley, 124.
  204. Paul S. Rees, The Warrior-Saint (Indianapolis, IN: The Pilgrim Book Room, 1934),
  205. Timothy L. Smith, Called Unto Holiness, 217,; Cunningham, Watchword, 209.
  206. "PRAYS FOR PRESIDENT AT WHITE HOUSE DESK; Minister Visiting Offices Asks "Full Health and Strength" for Absent Executive", The New York Times (31 July 1920):6.
  207. James W. Evans and Gardner L. Harding, Entertaining the American Army: The American Stage and Lyceum in the World War (Association Press, 1921):250; War Work of the New York State Young Men's Christian Associations, 1917–1919 (Buffalo, NY: Young Men's Christian Association, 1919).
  208. US Passport application, 4 May 1918.
  210. Cunningham, Watchword, 286; Miller, 36.
  211. 211.0 211.1 Messer, 296.
  212. New York Charities Directory: An Authoritative Classified and Descriptive Directory to the Philanthropic, Educational and Religious Resources of the City of New York (Charity Organization Society in the City of New York, 1920):505.
  213. The Lyre of Alpha Chi Omega 23 (1919):202; U.S. Passport Applications, 1795–1925 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: The Generations Network, Inc., 2007., Passport Applications, January 2, 1906 – March 31, 1925 (M1490), US Passport Application, 5 September 1919;
  214. A.E. Foote, War Department (9 September 1919), US Passport Application, 5 September 1919; Miller, 36; Ingersol, "Century".
  215. The Lyre of Alpha Chi Omega 23 (Alpha Chi Omega, 1919):11, 202.
  216. Miller, 36; Ingersol, "Century".
  217. Roll M1383_46, Seattle Passenger and Crew Lists, 1882–1957 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Operations Inc, 2006. Original data: Seattle, Washington. Passenger and Crew Lists of Vessels Arriving at Seattle, Washington, 1890–1957. Micropublication M1383. RG085. 357 rolls. National Archives, Washington, D.C.; Suwa Maru picture:;;
  218. The denomination had voted to rename itself as the Church of the Nazarene at its General Assembly in 1919 to avoid confusion with the Pentecostal churches that practiced speaking in tongues (glossolalia).
  219. US Federal Census, 7–8 January 1920; Source Citation: Year: 1920;Census Place: Brooklyn Assembly District 18, Kings, New York; Roll T625_1172; Page: 7B; Enumeration District: 1103; Image: 1010, page 14. By 1930 the church had relocated to Bushwick Avenue and Grove Street, Brooklyn, see Brooklyn Church Year Book 1930–1931 (Brooklyn Federation of Churches):156.
  220. Property valuation (tax assessments) of Brooklyn Avenue, Brooklyn, New York City (NYC): 277, 290, 291, 292, 294, 298, 300, 302A, 303, 304, 308, 312. Read more:
  221. 1920 US Federal Census. Hoople's son, William Clifford Hoople married Marguerite Landenberger in 1915, (see Sigma Phi Epsilon Journal 13 (1915):338) and had left home, while his daughter Ruth temporarily returned from her missionary work in China.
  222. Source Citation: Place: Alameda; Date: Oct 18, 1951; Source Information: California Death Index, 1940–1997 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: The Generations Network, Inc., 2000. Original data: State of California. California Death Index, 1940–1997. Sacramento, CA, USA: State of California Department of Health Services, Center for Health Statistics.
  223. Also listed as Abraham Edward Fitkin, see James Terry White, The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography Vol. 27 (James T. White & Co., 1939.):142.
  224. US Federal Census: January 7–8, 1920; Source Citation: Year: 1920;Census Place: Brooklyn Assembly District 18, Kings, New York; Roll T625_1172; Page: 7B; Enumeration District: 1103; Image: 1010, page 14.
  225. UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE. WILLIAM HOWARD HOOPLE, OF BROOKLYN, NEW YORK. LEATHER-STRIPPING MACHINE. SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 412,503, dated October 8, 1889. Application filed May 29, 1889.
  226. United States Patent Office, Official Gazette of the United States Patent Office, Vol. 86 (United States Patent Office, 1899); UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE, "EDGAR J. FORCE, OF NEW YORK, NY, ASSIGNOR OF ONE-FOURTH TO WILLIAM HOWARD HOOPLE, OF SAME PLACE", Patent number: 618005. Filing date: 26 February 1898. Issue date: 17 January 1899.
  227. The Trow (formerly Wilson's) Copartnership and Corporation Directory of New York City (Trow, 1902):430.
  228. The Financial Red Book of America (Financial Directory Association, 1905):243.
  229. The Trow (formerly Wilson's) Copartnership and Corporation Directory of New York City (Trow, 1909); Lesley Richmond, Julie Stevenson, and Alison Turton, The Pharmaceutical Industry: A Guide to Historical Records (Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2003):282.
  230. Who's Who in New York (City and State), Vol. 4 (revised; L.R. Hamersly, 1909):1280; William Edgar Sackett, John James Scannell, and Mary Eleanor Watson, Scannell's New Jersey's First Citizens and State Guide, Vol. 2: 1919–1920 (J. J. Scannell, 1919):451; The New International Year Book: A Compendium of the World's Progress (Dodd, Mead and Co., 1937):531.
  231. "The Circle Changes Hands", The New York Times (April 4, 1908), Section: SATURDAY REVIEW OF BOOKS, Page BR186; Bookseller & Stationer 24 (1908):30.
  232. Robert Denton Fisher, Robert D. Fisher Manual of Valuable and Worthless Securities, Vol. 6 (Robert D. Fischer & Co., 1938):207.
  233. Printers' Ink 72 (1910):72.
  234. The Trow (formerly Wilson's) Copartnership and Corporation Directory of New York City (Trow, 1909); Adrian Room, Dictionary of Trade Name Origins (Routledge, 1983):52.; Pharmaceutical Journal: A Weekly Record of Pharmacy and Allied Sciences (J. Churchill, 1894):xxii; Scribner's Magazine 35 (Charles Scribners Sons, 1904):113; Good Housekeeping 43 (1906):408; Life 47:2 (1906):794.
  235. Automotive Industries 34 (1916):386, 785; Interstate Electric Corporation (A.E. Fitkin & Co.).
  236. The Trow (formerly Wilson's) Copartnership and Corporation Directory of New York City (Trow, 1911):680.
  237. Automotive Industries 34 (1916):386, 785; Sigma Phi Epsilon journal 14 (1916):421; Horseless Age: The Automobile Trade Magazine 37 (1916):208; Standard Corporation Service, daily revised (Standard Statistics Company, Inc., 1918):25; Automobile Quarterly 34:4 (1995):14; Griffith Borgeson, The Golden Age of the American Racing Car, 2nd. ed. (SAE, 1998):65.
  238. Lewis Randolph Hamersly and John William Leonard, Who's Who in New York City and State, Vol. 8 (L.R. Hamersly Co., 1924):632.
  239. "NEW INCORPORATIONS", Special to The New York Times (January 26, 1917):13; NARD Journal 23:20 (National Association of Retail Druggists (U.S.), 1917):868.
  240. "PROTECTS ENEMY ALIENS: Germans In Fritz Schultz, Jr., Inc., Have Receivers Named", The New York Times (June 9, 1917), Section: Business & Finance, Page 16; "Corporations. Legal Entity Theory. Effect of War", Virginia Law Review 5:1 (October 1917):71; Alien Property Custodian Report: A Detailed Report by the Alien Property Custodian of All Proceedings had by Him Under the Trading with the Enemy Act During the Calendar Year 1918, and to the Close of Business on February 15, 1919 (Ayer Publishing, 1977):347; Cases Argued and Determined in the Court of Appeals, Supreme and Lower Courts of Record of New York State Vol. 166 (West Publishing, 1917):567; Francis Deák and Frank S. Ruddy, eds., American International Law Cases Vol. 15 (Oceana Publications, 1971):216; Fritz Schultz,. Jr., Co. v. Raines & Co., 100 Misc. 697, 166 N. Y. Supp. 567 (Sup. Ct. 1917; Charles Henry Huberich, The Law Relating to Trading with the Enemy: Together with a Consideration of the Civil Rights and Disabilities of Alien Enemies and of the Effect of War on Contracts with Alien Enemies (1918) (New York: Baker, Voorhis & Co.):39, 79–81, 194–195.
  241. "Real Estate Transfers", Real Estate Section, The New York Times (May 3, 1917):21. At that time Bessie lived in Fanwood, New Jersey and Mary lived at 690 Macon Street, Brooklyn.
  242. Capital Times (Madison, Wisconsin) (July 23, 1921).
  243. Moodys Manual of Railroads and Corporation Securities, Vol. 2, Part 2 (Moody Manual Co., 1922):2344–2345.
  244. One source indicates it was 227 Brooklyn Avenue, and that his telephone number was Bedford 3020. See Sigma Phi Epsilon journal 14 (1916):421.
  245. "Obituary Notices", The New York Times (September 30, 1922):9,; "Died", The New York Times (September 30, 1922):9,; Miller, 36.
  246. New York Times (September 30, 1922)
  247. "Rev William Howard Hoople",
  248. "Notes from the World's Largest City", The Preacher's Magazine 5:11 (November 1930):30,; Herald of Holiness 20:35 (Kansas City, MO: December 2, 1931):46,; The 1933 Brooklyn Church Year Book (Brooklyn Church and Mission Federation, 1933):101.
  249. It seems that the Reformed Church of Jesus congregation relocated to Glendale, Queens. 64 Menahan Street is now the location of the Iglesia de Dios Hispana. See "The New York City Organ Project: Organs Present and Past in the Five Boroughs of New York City: Brooklyn",

Further reading

  • Cunningham, Floyd T., ed. Our Watchword & Song: The Centennial History of the Church of the Nazarene. Kansas City, MO: Beacon Hill Press of Kansas City, 2009. ISBN 9780834124448
  • Helping Men to Help Themselves. Industrial Christian Alliance, 1903.
  • Hoople, Elizabeth L. The Hooples of Hoople's Creek. Ryerson Press, 1967.
  • Industrial Christian Alliance 1891: A History 1891–1898. New York (N.Y.): Industrial Christian Alliance, 1898.
  • Kostlevy, William and Gari-Anne Patzwald, eds. "Hoople, William Howard", p. 132. In Historical Dictionary of the Holiness Movement. Scarecrow Press, 2001.
  • Hamersly, Lewis Randolph. Who's Who in New York (City and State). Issue 7. Lewis Historical Publ. Co., 1918. Issue 8, 1924.
  • Miller, Basil. Twelve Early Nazarene Leaders. Kansas City, MO: Nazarene Publishing House, 1941. [1]
  • Smith, Timothy L. Called Unto Holiness: The Story of the Nazarenes: The Formative Years. Kansas City, MO: Nazarene Publishing House, 1962. [2]
  • Taft, William Howard and Frederick Morgan Harris, eds. Service with Fighting Men: An Account of the Work of the American Young Men's Christian Associations in the World War. 2 vols. New York: Association Press, 1922.
  • Wilson, Rufus Rockwell. New York: Old & New: Its Story, Streets, and Landmarks. 2 Vols. 3rd ed. New York: J.B. Lippincott company, 1902.

External links