|This article does not cite any references or sources. (May 2013)|
The Extended Speech Assessment Methods Phonetic Alphabet (X-SAMPA) is a variant of SAMPA developed in 1995 by John C. Wells, professor of phonetics at the University of London. It is designed to unify the individual language SAMPA alphabets, and extend SAMPA to cover the entire range of characters in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). The result is a SAMPA-inspired remapping of the IPA into 7-bit ASCII.
SAMPA was devised as a hack to work around the inability of text encodings to represent IPA symbols. Later, as Unicode support for IPA symbols became more widespread, the necessity for a separate, computer-readable system for representing the IPA in ASCII decreased. However, X-SAMPA is still useful as the basis for an input method for true IPA.
- The IPA symbols that are ordinary lower-case letters have the same value in X-SAMPA as they do in the IPA.
- X-SAMPA uses backslashes as modifying suffixes to create new symbols. For example O is a distinct sound from O\, to which it bears no relation. Such use of the backslash character can be a problem, since many programs interpret it as an escape character for the character following it. For example, you cannot use such X-SAMPA symbols in EMU, therefore you need to replace backslash with some other symbol (e.g. an asterisk: '*') when adding phonemic transcription to an EMU speech database.
- X-SAMPA diacritics follow the symbols they modify. Except for ~ for nasalization, = for syllabicity, and ` for retroflexion and rhotacization, diacritics are joined to the character with the underscore character _.
- The underscore character is also used to encode the IPA tiebar.[clarification needed]
- The numbers _1 to _6 are reserved diacritics as shorthand for language-specific tone numbers.
Lower case symbols
|Place of articulation →||Labial||Coronal||Dorsal||Radical||(none)|
|Manner of articulation ↓||Bilabial|| Labio‐
|Plosive||p b||p_d b_d||t d||t` d`||c J\||k g||q G\||>\||?|
|Fricative||p\ B||f v||T D||s z||S Z||s` z`||C j\||x G||X||R||X\||?\||H\||<\||h h\|
|Tap or Flap||*†||*†||4||r`||*|
|Lateral Fricative||K K\||*||*||*|
- Daggers (†) mark IPA symbols that have recently been added to Unicode. Since April 2008, this is the case of the labiodental flap, symbolized by a right-hook v in the IPA: Labiodental flap A dedicated symbol for the labiodental flap does not yet exist in X-SAMPA.
|W||Voiceless labialized velar approximant|
|w||Voiced labialized velar approximant|
|H||Voiced labialized palatal approximant|
|s\||Voiceless palatalized postalveolar (alveolo-palatal) fricative|
|z\||Voiced palatalized postalveolar (alveolo-palatal) fricative|
|x\||Voiceless "palatal-velar" fricative|
|Affricates and double articulation|
|ts||voiceless alveolar affricate|
|dz||voiced alveolar affricate|
|tS||voiceless postalveolar affricate|
|dZ||voiced postalveolar affricate|
|ts\||voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate|
|dz\||voiced alveolo-palatal affricate|
|tK||voiceless alveolar lateral affricate|
|kp||voiceless labial-velar plosive|
|gb||voiced labial-velar plosive|
|Nm||labial-velar nasal stop|
||\||Laminal alveolar ("dental")||d_<||Alveolar||p_>||Bilabial|
|ǃ\||Apical (post-) alveolar ("retroflex")||J\_<||Palatal||t_>||Alveolar|
|=\||Laminal postalveolar ("palatal")||g_<||Velar||k_>||Velar|
||\|\||Lateral coronal ("lateral")||G\_<||Uvular||s_>||Alveolar fricative|
- International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)
- International Phonetic Alphabet for English
- Kirshenbaum and WorldBet, similar systems.
- List of phonetics topics
- SAMPA, a language-specific predecessor of X-SAMPA.
- SAMPA chart for English
- Computer-coding the IPA: A proposed extension of SAMPA
- Translate English texts into IPA phonetics with PhoTransEdit. This free software tool allows to export transcriptions to X-SAMPA.
- Online converter between IPA and X-Sampa
- Web-based translator for X-SAMPA documents. Produces Unicode text, XML text, PostScript, PDF, or LaTeX TIPA.
- Z-SAMPA, an extension of X-SAMPA sometimes used for conlangs