Open Access Articles- Top Results for Xeriscaping


Xeriscaping (often incorrectly spelled zero-scaping or xeroscaping) is landscaping and gardening that reduces or eliminates the need for supplemental water from irrigation.[1] It is promoted in regions that do not have easily accessible, plentiful, or reliable supplies of fresh water, and is gaining acceptance in other areas as access to water becomes more limited. Xeriscaping may be an alternative to various types of traditional gardening.[2][3]

In some areas, terms such as water-conserving landscapes, drought-tolerant landscaping, and smart scaping are used instead. Plants whose natural requirements are appropriate to the local climate are emphasized, and care is taken to avoid losing water to evaporation and run-off. The specific plants used in xeriscaping depend upon the climate. Xeriscaping is different from natural landscaping, because the emphasis in xeriscaping is on selection of plants for water conservation, not necessarily selecting native plants.

Public perception of xeriscaping has generally been negative as many assume that that these types of landscapes are ugly or limiting. However studies have shown that education in water conservation practices in the garden can greatly improve the public's perception of xeriscaping.[4]


Cacti are one of the low-water-consuming plants used in Xeriscaping.
  • Lowered consumption of water: Xeriscaped landscapes use up to two thirds less water than regular lawn landscapes. [5]
  • Makes more water available for other domestic and community uses and the environment.
  • Reduce Maintenance: Aside from occasional weeding and mulching Xeriscaping requires far less time and effort to maintain.[6]
  • Xeriscape plants in appropriate planting design, and soil grading and mulching, takes full advantage of rainfall retention. [6]
  • Less cost to maintain: Xeriscaping requires less fertilisers and equipment, particularly due to the reduced lawn areas. [6]
  • Reduced waste and pollution: Lawn clippings can contribute to organic waste in landfills and the use of heavy fertilisers contributes to urban runoff pollution. [5]


  • It may not meet modern aesthetics: Some homeowners associations have strict rules requiring a certain percentage of land be used as lawns.[7]
  • Reduced areas for sports: Reducing lawn areas can limit a garden’s use as a recreational area.
  • Certain plants such as cacti and agave contain thorns or serrated edges which may harm pets and children.
  • Initial Cost: As with any landscaping project, the initial cost of installation may be a deterrent for some.[4]

Design Principles of Xeriscaping

Originally conceived by Denver Water, the seven design principles of xeriscaping have since expanded into simple and applicable concepts to creating landscapes that use less water. The principles are appropriate for multiple regions and can serve as a guide to creating a water conserving landscape that is regionally appropriate and since they were conceived for homeowners they are easy to implement.

1. Plan and design: Create a diagram, drawn to scale, that shows the major elements of the landscape, including house, driveway, sidewalk, deck or patio, existing trees and other elements.[8]

Once a base plan of an existing site has been determined, the creation of a conceptual plan (bubble diagram) that shows the areas for turf, perennial beds, views, screens, slopes, etc. is undertaken. Once finished, the development of a planting plan that reinforces the areas in the appropriate scale is done.[8]

2. Soil amendmentTemplate:Spaced ndash Most plants will benefit from the use of compost, which will help the soil retain water.[8] Some desert plants prefer gravel soils instead of well-amended soils. Plants should either fit the soil or soil should be amended to fit the plants.

3. Efficient irrigation: Xeriscape can be irrigated efficiently by hand or with an automatic sprinkler system. Zone turf areas separately from other plants and use the irrigation method that waters the plants in each area most efficiently. For grass, use gear-driven rotors or rotary spray nozzles that have larger droplets and low angles to avoid wind drift. Spray, drip line or bubbler emitters are most efficient for watering trees, shrubs, flowers and groundcovers.[8]

If watering by hand, avoid oscillating sprinklers and other sprinklers that throw water high in the air or release a fine mist. The most efficient sprinklers release big drops close to the ground.[8]

Water deeply and infrequently to develop deep roots. Never water during the day to reduce water lost to evaporation. With the use of automatic sprinkling systems, adjust the controller monthly to accommodate weather conditions. Also, install a rain sensor to shut off the device when it rains.[8]

4. Appropriate plant and zone selection: Different areas in a yard receive different amounts of light, wind and moisture. To minimize water waste, group together plants with similar light and water requirements, and place them in an area that matches these requirements. Put moderate-water-use plants in low-lying drainage areas, near downspouts, or in the shade of other plants. Turf typically requires the most water and shrub/perennial beds will require approximately half the amount of water. Dry, sunny areas support low-water-use plants that grow well in our climate. Planting a variety of plants with different heights, color and textures creates interest and beauty.[8]

5. Mulch: Mulch keeps plant roots cool, prevents soil from crusting, minimizes evaporation and reduces weed growth. Organic mulches, such as bark chips, pole peelings or wood grindings, should be applied 2 to 4 inches deep. Fiber mulches create a web that is more resistant to wind and rain washout. Inorganic mulches, such as rocks and gravel, should be applied 2 to 3 inches deep. Surrounding plants with rock makes the area hotter; limit this practice.[8]

6. Limited turf areas: Native grasses (warm-season) that have been cultivated for turf lawns, such as buffalo grass and blue grama, can survive with a quarter of the water that bluegrass varieties need. Warm-season grasses are greenest in June through September and straw brown the rest of the year.[8]

Native grasses (cool season) such as bluegrass and tall fescue, are greenest in the spring and fall and go dormant in the high heat of the summer. New cultivars of bluegrass, such as Reveille, and tall fescue, can reduce typical bluegrass water requirements by at least 30 percent. Fine fescues can provide substantial water savings and is best used in areas that receive low traffic or are in shady locations.[8]

Use the appropriate grass and limit the amount of grass to reduce the watering and maintenance requirements.

7. Maintenance: All landscapes require some degree of care during the year. Turf requires spring and fall aeration along with regular fertilization every 6 to 8 weeks. Keep the grass height at 3 inches and allow the clippings to fall. Trees, shrubs and perennials will need occasional pruning to remove dead stems, promote blooming or control height and spread. Much of the removed plant material can be shredded and used in composting piles.[8]

Lawns and Xeriscaping

One of the major challenges to the public acceptance of xeriscaping is the cultural attachment to turf grass lawns. Originally implemented in England, lawns have become a universal symbol of prosperity, order and community [9] In the United States turf grasses are so common that it is the single most irrigated crop by surface area, covering nearly 128,000 square kilometers. Despite the high water, fertiliser and maintenance costs associated with lawns, they have become the norm in most urban and suburban areas, even if they are rarely used for recreational purposes or otherwise.[10] Xeriscaped landscapes offer an alternative to the over use of turf grass lawns but are not widely accepted because of preconceived notions of what it means to xeriscape. Xeriscaping can include lawn areas but seeks to reduce them to areas that will actually be used, rather than using them as a default landscaping plan.

See also

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  1. ^ Xeriscape | Define Xeriscape at
  2. ^ Weinstein, Gayle. "Xeriscape Handbook: A How-To Guide to Natural Resource-Wise Gardening", Golden CO: Fulcrum Publishing (1999), ISBN 1555913466, pp. 55
  3. ^ Elizabeth Caldwell (2007-07-15). "With xeriscaping, grass needn't always be greener". USA Today. 
  4. ^ a b McKenny, Cynthia; Terry, Jr, Robert (Oct–Dec 1995). "The Effectiveness of Using Workshops to Change Audience Perception of and Attitudes about Xeriscaping" (PDF). HortTechnology 5 (4): 327–329. 
  5. ^ a b "City of Mesa, Arizona." Solving Your Most Common Irrigation Problems. City Of Mesa Arizona. Web. 25 Nov. 2014. <
  6. ^ a b c McCracken, Maureen. "Xeriscape: An Introduction." Master Gardeners of Mecklenburg County NC. Meckelburg County, 1 Feb. 2009. Web. 25 Nov. 2014. <
  7. ^ Galbraith, Kate. "Bills Aim to Douse HOAs' Xeriscaping Restrictions, by Kate Galbraith." The Texas Tribune. 31 Jan. 2013.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Xeriscape Plans." Xeriscape Plans. Denver Water. <>.
  9. ^ Mustafa, Daanish, Thomas A Smucker, Franklin Ginn, Rebecca Johns, and Shanon Connely. "Xeriscape people and the cultural politics of turfgrass transformation." Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 28.4 (2010): 600-617.
  10. ^ Schindler, Sarah B.. "Banning Lawns(municipal police power to ban lawns as sustainability policy)." The George Washington law review 82.2 (2014): 394-454.

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