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Zakhireye Khwarazmshahi

Zakhireye Khwarazmshahi (Persian: ذخیرهٔ خوارزمشاهی‎, "Treasure dedicated to the king of Khwarazm") is a Persian medical encyclopedia written by the Persian,Ismail Gorgani (1040-1136) between 1111 and 1136(link:A). In Arabic the letter 'G' changes in pronunciation to 'J',therefore the pronunciation of "Gogani" changes to "Jorjani". Gorgan is a city in northern Iran. This Persian medical book is equal in prestige to the famous medical book by Avicenna, which is considered medical canon. Although the book of Zakhirah-i Khvarazm'Shahi is written in Persian by Jorjani, it contains a few Arabic words. This Iranian traditional medicinal book has been translated to other languages such as Turkish, Urdo, and Hebrew. Jurjani after writing Zakhireye Khwarazmshahi or "Zakhireh-i Kharazmshahi" ,wrote The book of Khofi Alayee (Khofe alaei) as a contracted of the " Zakhireye Khwarazmshahi" . Khofe alaei becomes easier to read than the original book of "Zakhireye Khwarazmshahi " . for this account this summarized book from of the original book"Zakhireye Khwarazmshahi " was called Khafi Alayee .

chapters and contents

Zakhirah-i Khvarazm'Shahi contains 10 chapters and a preface. In the preface Jorjani writes about the ecology of the Khorezm and the foods and nutrition of the people of the Khorezm (now called Khorasan). Chapter one is about the importance of medicine, human anatomy, and general pathophysiology. Chapter two is related to symptoms and signs of the diseases and methods of treatment, sphigmology ("sphygmo" in Greek means pulse), and any liquid material excreted from the body (such as sweat and urine). Chapter three is about the water and weather, nutrition, exercise, emotions, sleep and wakefulness, and methods of treatment for children and the elderly. Chapter four is about the differential diagnoses and course of diseases. Chapter five defines fever categories and natural moisture and its relation with fever. In chapter six, Jorjani writes about treatment of any diseases that relate to the head, cervix, and the upper and lower limbs and trunk. In chapter seven of his book, Jorjani writes about methods of treatment of different types of wounds, inflammations, oncology, burns by hot water, hot oil and fire, cauterization, and orthopedics. Chapter eight is about diseases that relate to the integument system such as general dermatology, hair pathology, fatness, weight loss and methods of treatment of it. Chapter nine contain topic about the toxins, drugs, animal bites and rabidity, and insects stings. Finally in chapter ten Jorjani writes about classification of drugs and basic pharmacology, drugs for the ear, eye, nose and mouth, epilepsy, stroke, and pharmacological terminology(1,2,3,4,5,6,7).


1-Fariborz Moattar ; Mohammad Reza Shams Ardekani; Alireza Ghannadi, The Life of Jorjani: One of the Persian Pioneers of Medical Encyclopedia Compiling: On the Occasion of His 1000th Birthday Anniversary (434, A.H. - 1434, A.H.), Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal.2013 September; 15(9):763-6. DOI: 10.5812/ircmj.8080.

2-Mohammadali M. Shoja, R. Shane Tubbs, Majid Khalili, Kazem Khodadoost, Marios Loukas, A. Cohen-Gadol, Esmail Jorjani (1042-1137) and His Descriptions of Trigeminal Neuralgia,Hemifacial Spasm, and Bell’s Palsy, NE UROSURGERY, 2010 VOLUME 67 , NUMBER 2 , AUGUST 2010 , 431. DOI: 10.1227/01.NEU.0000372088.18260.B1.

3-Hosseini SF, Alakbarli F, Ghabili K, Shoja MM, Hakim Esmail Jorjani (1042-1137 AD: ): Persian physician and jurist. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2011 Sep;284(3):647-50. doi: 10.1007/s00404-010-1707-7.

4-Seyed Ahmad Emami , Amirhossein Sahebkar , Nilufar Tayarani-Najaran , Zahra Tayarani-Najaran , Cancer and its Treatment in Main Ancient Books of Islamic Iranian Traditional Medicine (7th to 14th Century AD), Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal, 2012;14(12):747-57. DOI: 10.5812/ircmj.4954.

5-Saeed Changizi Ashtiyani, Ali Zarei, and Mohammad Elahipour. Innovations and Discoveries of Jorjani in Medicine ,J Med Ethics Hist Med. 2009; 2: 16.Published online 2009 Aug 20.PMCID: PMC3713907.

6-Shoja MM, Tubbs RS. The history of anatomy in Persia. J Anat 2007; 210:359–378.

7-A Research Conducted on the Life and Works of Hakim Sayyid Esmail Jurjani, Mohammad Reza Shams Ardekani, Fariborz Moatar. Journal of the International Society for the History of Islamic Medicine, Vol 4, No 7, April 2005.

External links