Leprosy - Related Links
Open Access Articles- Top Results for Leprosy
Journal of Multiple SclerosisDemyelination in Peripheral Nerves: Much to Learn from Leprosy Neuropathy
Journal of Medical Microbiology & DiagnosisExpansion of T regulatory Cells in Lepromatous Leprosy is Mediated by Phenolic Glycolipid-1
Mycobacterial DiseasesDetection of Mycobacterium Gilvum First Time from the Bathing Water of Leprosy Patient from Purulia, West Bengal
Mycobacterial DiseasesDifferential Cytokine Response and IgG Subclasses in Pulmonary TB Patients, Household Contacts and BCG Vaccinated PPD-ve Healthy Controls
A 24-year-old man from Norway, infected with leprosy, 1886
|Classification and external resources|
|eMedicine||med/1281 derm/223 neuro/187|
Leprosy //, also known as Hansen's disease (HD) is a chronic infection caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium lepromatosis. Initially, infections are without symptoms and typically remain this way for 5 to as long as 20 years. Symptoms that develop include granulomas of the nerves, respiratory tract, skin, and eyes. This may result in a lack of ability to feel pain and thus loss of parts of extremities due to repeated injuries. Weakness and poor eyesight may also be present.
Leprosy is spread between people. This is believed to occur through a cough or contact with fluid from the nose of an infected person. Leprosy occurs more commonly among those living in poverty and is believed to be transmitted by respiratory droplets. It is not very contagious. The two main types of disease are based on the number of bacteria present: paucibacillary and multibacillary. The two types are differentiated by the number of poorly pigmented, numb skin patches present, with paucibacillary having five or fewer and multibacillary having more than five. The diagnosis is confirmed by finding acid-fast bacilli in a biopsy of the skin or via detecting the DNA by polymerase chain reaction.
Leprosy is curable with treatment. Treatment for paucibacillary leprosy is with the medications dapsone and rifampicin for 6 months. Treatment for multibacillary leprosy consists of rifampicin, dapsone, and clofazimine for 12 months. These treatments are provided for free by the World Health Organization. A number of other antibiotics may also be used. Globally in 2012, the number of chronic cases of leprosy was 189,000 and the number of new cases was 230,000. The number of chronic cases has decreased from some 5.2 million in the 1980s. Most new cases occur in 16 countries, with India accounting for more than half. In the past 20 years, 16 million people worldwide have been cured of leprosy. About 200 cases are reported per year in the United States.
Leprosy has affected humanity for thousands of years. The disease takes its name from the Latin word lepra, which means "scaly", while the term "Hansen's disease" is named after the physician Gerhard Armauer Hansen. Separating people by placing them in leper colonies still occurs in places such as India, China, and Africa. However, most colonies have closed since leprosy is not very contagious. Leprosy has been associated with social stigma for much of history, which is a barrier to self-reporting and early treatment. Some consider the word leper offensive, preferring the phrase "persons affected with leprosy". World Leprosy Day was started in 1954 to draw awareness to those affected by leprosy.
- 1 Signs and symptoms
- 2 Cause
- 3 Pathophysiology
- 4 Diagnosis
- 5 Prevention
- 6 Treatment
- 7 Epidemiology
- 8 History
- 9 Society and culture
- 10 References
- 11 External links
Signs and symptoms
Leprosy is primarily a granulomatous disease of the peripheral nerves and mucosa of the upper respiratory tract; skin lesions (light or dark patches) are the primary external sign. If untreated, leprosy can progress and cause permanent damage to the skin, nerves, limbs, and eyes. Contrary to folklore, leprosy does not cause body parts to fall off, although they can become numb or diseased as a result of secondary infections; these occur as a result of the body's defenses being compromised by the primary disease. Secondary infections, in turn, can result in tissue loss causing fingers and toes to become shortened and deformed, as cartilage is absorbed into the body.
M. leprae and M. lepromatosis are the causative agents of leprosy. M. lepromatosis is a relatively newly identified mycobacterium isolated from a fatal case of diffuse lepromatous leprosy in 2008.
Due to extensive loss of genes necessary for independent growth, M. leprae and M. lepromatosis are obligate intracellular pathogens, and unculturable in the laboratory, a factor that leads to difficulty in definitively identifying the organism under a strict interpretation of Koch's postulates. The use of nonculture-based techniques such as molecular genetics has allowed for alternative establishment of causation.
While the causative organisms have to date been impossible to culture in vitro, it has been possible to grow them in animals such as mice and armadillos.
At highest risk are those living in areas with polluted water and poor diet or people suffering from diseases that compromise immune function. There appears to be little interaction between HIV and the risk of leprosy. Genetic predisposition appears to play a role in susceptibility.
Leprosy is not known to be either sexually transmitted or highly infectious. People are no longer infectious after as little as two weeks of treatment.
Two exit routes of M. leprae from the human body often described are the skin and the nasal mucosa, although their relative importance is not clear. Lepromatous cases show large numbers of organisms deep in the dermis, but whether they reach the skin surface in sufficient numbers is doubtful.
The skin and the upper respiratory tract are most likely entry route. While older research dealt with the skin route, recent research has increasingly favored the respiratory route. Experimental transmission of leprosy through aerosols containing M. leprae in immune-suppressed mice was accomplished, suggesting a similar possibility in humans.
Several genes have been associated with a susceptibility to leprosy. Around 95% of people are believed to be naturally immune. Research suggests a defect in cell-mediated immunity causes susceptibility to leprosy. The region of DNA responsible for this variability is also involved in Parkinson's disease, giving rise to current speculation that the two disorders may be linked in some way at the biochemical level. Some evidence indicates not all people who are infected with M. leprae develop leprosy, and genetic factors have long been thought to play a role, due to the observation of clustering of leprosy around certain families, and the failure to understand why certain individuals develop lepromatous leprosy while others develop other types of leprosy. Due to genetic factors, an estimated 5% of the population is susceptible to leprosy. This is mostly because the body is naturally immune to the bacteria, and those persons who do become infected experience severe allergic reactions to the disease. However, the role of genetic factors is not entirely clear in determining this clinical expression. In addition, malnutrition and prolonged exposure to infected persons may play a role in development of the overt disease.
How the infection produces the symptoms of the disease is not known.
Per the World Health Organization, diagnosis in an endemic area is based on one of these cardinal signs:
- Skin lesion consistent with leprosy and with definite sensory loss
- Positive skin smears
Skin lesions can be single or multiple, usually hypopigmented, although occasionally reddish or copper-colored. The lesions may be macules (flat), papules (raised), or nodular. Sensory loss at the skin lesion is important because this feature can help differentiate from other causes of skin lesions such as tinea versicolor.
Thickened nerves are associated with leprosy and can be accompanied by loss of sensation or muscle weakness. However, without the characteristic skin lesion and sensory loss, muscle weakness is not considered a reliable sign of leprosy.
Diagnosis in the U.S. is often delayed because healthcare providers are unaware of leprosy and its symptoms. Early diagnosis and treatment prevent nerve involvement, the hallmark of leprosy, and the disability it causes.
Many kinds of leprosy are known, but some symptoms are common, including runny nose, dry scalp, eye problems, skin lesions, muscle weakness, reddish skin, smooth shiny diffuse thickening of facial skin, ear, and hand, loss of sensation in fingers and toes, thickening of peripheral nerves, and flat nose due to destruction of nasal cartilage. Also, phonation and resonation of sound occurs during speech. Often, atrophy of the testes and impotency happen.
Several different approaches for classifying leprosy exist, but parallels exist.
- The World Health Organization system distinguishes "paucibacillary" and "multibacillary" based upon the proliferation of bacteria.("pauci-" refers to a low quantity.)
- The SHAY scale provides five gradations.
- The ICD-10, though developed by the WHO, uses Ridley-Jopling and not the WHO system. It also adds an indeterminate ("I") entry.
- In MeSH, three groupings are used.
|WHO||Ridley-Jopling||ICD-10||MeSH||Description||Lepromin test||Immune target|
|Paucibacillary|| tuberculoid ("TT"),
|A30.1, A30.2||Tuberculoid||It is characterized by one or more hypopigmented skin macules and anaesthetic patches, where skin sensations are lost because of damaged peripheral nerves that have been attacked by the human host's immune cells.||Positive||bacillus (Th1)|
|A30.3||Borderline||Borderline leprosy is of intermediate severity and is the most common form. Skin lesions resemble tuberculoid leprosy, but are more numerous and irregular; large patches may affect a whole limb, and peripheral nerve involvement with weakness and loss of sensation is common. This type is unstable and may become more like lepromatous leprosy or may undergo a reversal reaction, becoming more like the tuberculoid form.|
|Multibacillary|| borderline lepromatous ("BL"),
and lepromatous ("LL")
|A30.4, A30.5||Lepromatous||It is associated with symmetric skin lesions, nodules, plaques, thickened dermis, and frequent involvement of the nasal mucosa resulting in nasal congestion and epistaxis (nose bleeds), but, typically, detectable nerve damage is late.||Negative||plasmid inside|
 (Th2)
A difference in immune response to the tuberculoid and lepromatous forms is seen.
Leprosy may also be divided into::344–346
Early detection of the disease is important, since physical and neurological damage may be irreversible even if cured. Medications can decrease the risk of those living with people with leprosy from acquiring the disease and likely those with whom people with leprosy come into contact outside the home. However, concerns are known of resistance, cost, and disclosure of a person's infection status when doing follow-up of contacts. Therefore, the WHO recommends that people who live in the same household be examined for leprosy and only be treated if symptoms are present.
The Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccine offers a variable amount of protection against leprosy in addition to tuberculosis. It appears to be 26 to 41% effective (based on controlled trials) and about 60% effective based on observational studies with two doses possibly working better than one. Development of a more effective vaccine is ongoing as of 2011.
A number of leprostatic agents are available for treatment. For paucibacillary (PB or tuberculoid) cases, treatment with daily dapsone and monthly rifampicin for six months is recommended. While for multibacillary (MB or lepromatous) cases, treatment with daily dapsone and clofazimine along with monthly rifampicin for twelve months is recommended.
Multidrug therapy (MDT) remains highly effective, and people are no longer infectious after the first monthly dose. It is safe and easy to use under field conditions due to its presentation in calendar blister packs. Relapse rates remain low, and no resistance to the combined drugs is seen.
Globally in 2012, the number of cases of leprosy was 180,000. In 2011, the approximate number of new cases diagnosed was 220,000. The number of cases has decreased significantly from the 1960s to the 2010s.
In 1995, two to three million people were estimated to be permanently disabled because of leprosy. India has the greatest number of cases, with Brazil second and Myanmar third. In 2000, the WHO listed 91 countries in which leprosy is endemic. India, Burma, and Nepal contained 70% of cases. India reports over 50% of the world's leprosy cases.[medical citation needed] In 2002, 763,917 new cases were detected worldwide, and in that year the WHO listed Brazil, Madagascar, Mozambique, Tanzania, and Nepal as having 90% of leprosy cases. Although the number of cases worldwide continues to fall, pockets of high prevalence continue in certain areas such as Brazil, South Asia (India, Nepal), some parts of Africa (Tanzania, Madagascar, Mozambique), and the western Pacific.
While the number of cases of leprosy was in the tens of millions in the 1960s, a series of national (The International Federation of Anti-Leprosy Associations) and international (the WHO's "Global Strategy for Reducing Disease Burden Due to Leprosy") initiatives have reduced the total number and the number of new cases the disease.
Although the number of new leprosy cases occurring each year is important as a measure of transmission, it is difficult to measure due to leprosy's long incubation period, delays in diagnosis after onset of the disease, and the lack of laboratory tools to detect it in the very early stages. Instead, the registered prevalence is used. Registered prevalence is a useful proxy indicator of the disease burden, as it reflects the number of active leprosy cases diagnosed with the disease and receiving treatment with MDT at a given point in time. The prevalence rate is defined as the number of cases registered for MDT treatment among the population in which the cases have occurred, again at a given point in time.
New case detection is another indicator of the disease that is usually reported by countries on an annual basis. It includes cases diagnosed with onset of disease in the year in question (true incidence) and a large proportion of cases with onset in previous years (termed a backlog prevalence of undetected cases).
Endemic countries also report the number of new cases with established disabilities at the time of detection, as an indicator of the backlog prevalence. Determination of the time of onset of the disease is, in general, unreliable, is very labor-intensive, and is seldom done in recording these statistics.
Using comparative genomics, in 2005, geneticists traced the origins and worldwide distribution of leprosy from East Africa or the Near East along human migration routes. They found that there were four strains of M leprae with specific regional locations. Strain 1 occurs predominately in Asia, the Pacific region, and East Africa; strain 4, in in West Africa and the Caribbean; strain 3 in Europe, North Africa, and the Americas; and strain 2 only in Ethiopia, Malawai, Nepal/north India, and New Caledonia.
On the basis of this, they offer a map of the dissemination of leprosy in the world. This confirms the spread of the disease along the migration, colonisation, and slave trade routes taken from West Africa to India, East Africa to the New World, and from Africa into Europe and vice versa.
Although it is difficult to retrospectively identify descriptions of leprosy-like symptoms, what appears to be leprosy was discussed by Hippocrates in 460 BC. In 1846, Francis Adams produced The Seven Books of Paulus Aegineta which included a commentary on all medical and surgical knowledge and descriptions and remedies to do with leprosy from the Romans,Greeks,and Arabs.
Interpretations of the presence of leprosy have been made on the basis of descriptions in ancient Indian (Atharva Verda and Kausika Sutra), Greek, and Middle Eastern documentary sources that describe skin afflictions.
Skeletal remains from the second millennium B.C., discovered in 2009, represent the oldest documented evidence for leprosy. Located at Balathal, in Rajasthan, northwest India, the discoverers suggest that if the disease did migrate from Africa, to India, during the third millennium B.C. “at a time when there was substantial interaction among the Indus Civilization, Mesopotamia, and Egypt, there needs to be additional skeletal and molecular evidence of leprosy in India and Africa so as to confirm the African origin of the disease.”  A proven human case was verified by DNA taken from the shrouded remains of a man discovered in a tomb next to the Old City of Jerusalem dated by radiocarbon methods to 1–50 AD.
The causative agent of leprosy, M. leprae, was discovered by G. H. Armauer Hansen in Norway in 1873, making it the first bacterium to be identified as causing disease in humans. The first effective treatment (promin) became available in the 1940s. In the 1950s, dapsone was introduced. The search for further effective antileprosy drugs led to the use of clofazimine and rifampicin in the 1960s and 1970s. Later, Indian scientist Shantaram Yawalkar and his colleagues formulated a combined therapy using rifampicin and dapsone, intended to mitigate bacterial resistance. Multidrug therapy (MDT) combining all three drugs was first recommended by the WHO in 1981. These three antileprosy drugs are still used in the standard MDT regimens.
Leprosy was once believed to be highly contagious and was treated with mercury—all of which applied to syphilis, which was first described in 1530. Many early cases thought to be leprosy could actually have been syphilis. Effective treatment first appeared in the late 1940s. Resistance has developed to initial treatment. Until the introduction of MDT in the early 1980s, the disease could not be diagnosed and treated successfully within the community.
The importance of the nasal mucosa in the transmission of M leprae was recognized as early as 1898 by Schäffer, in particular that of the ulcerated mucosa.
Society and culture
Between 1995 and 1999, the WHO, with the aid of the Nippon Foundation, supplied all endemic countries with free multidrug treatment (MDT) in blister packs, channelled through ministries of health. This free provision was extended in 2000 and again in 2005 with donations by the MDT manufacturer Novartis through the WHO. In the latest agreement signed between the company and the WHO in October 2010, the provision of free MDT by the WHO to all endemic countries will now run until at least the end of 2015. At the national level, nongovernment organizations (NGOs) affiliated with the national programme will continue to be provided with an appropriate free supply of this WHO-supplied MDT by the government.
Many English translations of the Bible translate tzaraath as "leprosy," a confusion that derives from the use of the koine cognate "Λέπρα" (which can mean any disease causing scaly skin) in the Septuagint. Ancient sources such as the Talmud (Sifra 63) make clear that tzaraath refers to various types of lesions or stains associated with ritual impurity and occurring on cloth, leather, or houses, as well as skin. It may sometimes be a symptom of the disease described in this article, but has many other causes, as well. The New Testament describes instances of Jesus healing lepers (Luke 5:10), although the precise relationship between this, tzaraath, and Hansen's disease is not established.
People with leprosy often encounter discrimination. Depending on the level of disfigurement, a person with leprosy receives varying stigma and ostracism. People with leprosy earn less: 16–44% of them report their pay dropped as a result of having leprosy. Women suffer greater restrictions and social stigma than men. Leprosy prevents mothers from getting too close to their children out of fear they could infect them. In a report, 49% of women stopped breast-feeding their babies as a result of having leprosy. Doctors and other health care providers and NGOs are working hard to educate people about the disease. In one study when leprosy treatment and education were mixed in with the local healthcare program, the attitudes towards the disease were somewhat alleviated as people had a better understanding of it. Now, the disease prevalence has been reduced to less than one per million population in most parts of the country.
- Saint Damien DeVeuster, a Roman Catholic priest from Belgium, ministered to the people with leprosy who had been placed under a government-sanctioned medical quarantine on the island of Molokaʻi in the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi.
- Baldwin IV of Jerusalem was a Christian king of Latin Jerusalem, afflicted with leprosy. Baldwin, and the effects of his disease, were portrayed in the film Kingdom of Heaven.
- Vietnamese poet Hàn Mặc Tử
- Ōtani Yoshitsugu, a Japanese daimyo
- "Definition of leprosy". The Free Dictionary. Retrieved 2015-01-25.
- "Leprosy Fact sheet N°101". World Health Organization. Jan 2014.
- "New Leprosy Bacterium: Scientists Use Genetic Fingerprint To Nail 'Killing Organism'". ScienceDaily. 2008-11-28. Retrieved 2010-01-31.
- Suzuki K, Akama T, Kawashima A, Yoshihara A, Yotsu RR, Ishii N (February 2012). "Current status of leprosy: epidemiology, basic science and clinical perspectives.". The Journal of dermatology 39 (2): 121–9. PMID 21973237. doi:10.1111/j.1346-8138.2011.01370.x.
- "Hansen's Disease (Leprosy) Transmission". cdc.gov. April 29, 2013. Retrieved 28 February 2015.
- "Global leprosy situation, 2012". Wkly. Epidemiol. Rec. 87 (34): 317–28. August 2012. PMID 22919737.
- Rodrigues LC, Lockwood DNj (June 2011). "Leprosy now: epidemiology, progress, challenges, and research gaps.". The Lancet infectious diseases 11 (6): 464–70. PMID 21616456. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(11)70006-8.
- "Hansen's Disease Data & Statistics". http://www.hrsa.gov/. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
- Walsh F (2007-03-31). "The hidden suffering of India's lepers". BBC News.
- Lyn TE (2006-09-13). "Ignorance breeds leper colonies in China". Independat News & Media. Retrieved 2010-01-31.
- Byrne, Joseph P. (2008). Encyclopedia of pestilence, pandemics, and plagues. Westport, Conn.[u.a.]: Greenwood Press. p. 351. ISBN 9780313341021.
- editors, Enrico Nunzi, Cesare Massone, (2012). Leprosy a practical guide. Milan: Springer. p. 326. ISBN 9788847023765.
- McMenamin, Dorothy (2011). Leprosy and stigma in the South Pacific : a region-by-region history with first person accounts. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland. p. 17. ISBN 9780786463237.
- Kenneth J. Ryan, C. George Ray, editors. (2004). Ryan KJ, Ray CG, ed. Sherris Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). McGraw Hill. pp. 451–3. ISBN 0-8385-8529-9. OCLC 52358530 61405904.
- "Lifting the stigma of leprosy: a new vaccine offers hope against an ancient disease". Time 119 (19): 87. May 1982. PMID 10255067.
- Kulkarni GS (2008). Textbook of Orthopedics and Trauma (2 ed.). Jaypee Brothers Publishers. p. 779. ISBN 9788184482423.
- "Q and A about leprosy". American Leprosy Missions. Retrieved 2011-01-22.
Do fingers and toes fall off when someone gets leprosy? No. The bacillus attacks nerve endings and destroys the body's ability to feel pain and injury. Without feeling pain, people injure themselves on fire, thorns, rocks, even hot coffee cups. Injuries become infected and result in tissue loss. Fingers and toes become shortened and deformed as the cartilage is absorbed into the body.
- McMurray DN (1996). Mycobacteria and Nocardia. in: Baron's Medical Microbiology (Baron S et al., eds.) (4th ed.). Univ of Texas Medical Branch. ISBN 0-9631172-1-1. OCLC 33838234.
- Bhattacharya S, Vijayalakshmi N, Parija SC (1 October 2002). "Uncultivable bacteria: Implications and recent trends towards identification". Indian journal of medical microbiology 20 (4): 174–7. PMID 17657065.
- Meredith, Anna; Del Pozo, Jorge; Smith, Sionagh; Milne, Elspeth; Stevenson, Karen; McLuckie, Joyce (September 2014). "Leprosy in red squirrels in Scotland". Veterinary Record 175 (11): 285–286. doi:10.1136/vr.g5680.
- Lockwood DN, Lambert SM (January 2011). "Human immunodeficiency virus and leprosy: an update.". Dermatologic clinics 29 (1): 125–8. PMID 21095536. doi:10.1016/j.det.2010.08.016.
- "Leprosy". WHO. 2009-08-01. Retrieved 2010-01-31.
- "Functional Haplotypes That Produce Normal Ficolin-2 Levels Protect against Clinical Leprosy". Oxford Journals. Retrieved March 8, 2014.
- Truman RW, Singh P, Sharma R, Busso P, Rougemont J, Paniz-Mondolfi A, Kapopoulou A, Brisse S, Scollard DM, Gillis TP, Cole ST (April 2011). "Probable Zoonotic Leprosy in the Southern United States". The New England Journal of Medicine (Massachusetts Medical Society) 364 (17): 1626–1633. PMC 3138484. PMID 21524213. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1010536.
- Rojas-Espinosa O, Løvik M (2001). "Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium lepraemurium infections in domestic and wild animals". Rev. - Off. Int. Epizoot. 20 (1): 219–51. PMID 11288514.
- "What Is Leprosy?" THE MEDICAL NEWS | from News-Medical.Net - Latest Medical News and Research from Around the World. Web. 20 Nov. 2010. .
- Rees RJ, McDougall AC; McDougall (1977). "Airborne infection with Mycobacterium leprae in mice". J Med Microbiol 10 (1): 63–8. PMID 320339. doi:10.1099/00222615-10-1-63.
- Buschman E, Skamene E (Jun 2004). "Linkage of leprosy susceptibility to Parkinson's disease genes" (PDF). International journal of leprosy and other mycobacterial diseases 72 (2): 169–70. ISSN 0148-916X. PMID 15301585. doi:10.1489/1544-581X(2004)072<0169:LOLSTP>2.0.CO;2. Retrieved January 31, 2011.
- Alcaïs A, Mira M, Casanova JL, Schurr E, Abel L (2005). "Genetic dissection of immunity in leprosy". Curr. Opin. Immunol. 17 (1): 44–8. PMID 15653309. doi:10.1016/j.coi.2004.11.006.
- "AR Dept of Health debunks leprosy fears". 2008-02-08. Retrieved 2008-04-08.
- "Diagnosis of Leprosy." WHO. from http://www.who.int/lep/diagnosis/en/ accessed on 14 July 2014.
- U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration. (n.d.). National Hansen's disease (leprosy) program Retrieved from http://www.hrsa.gov/hansens/
- Smith DS (2008-08-19). "Leprosy: Overview". eMedicine Infectious Diseases. Retrieved 2010-02-01.
- Singh N, Manucha V, Bhattacharya SN, Arora VK, Bhatia A; Manucha; Bhattacharya; Arora; Bhatia (June 2004). "Pitfalls in the cytological classification of borderline leprosy in the Ridley-Jopling scale". Diagn. Cytopathol. 30 (6): 386–8. PMID 15176024. doi:10.1002/dc.20012.
- Ridley DS, Jopling WH; Jopling (1966). "Classification of leprosy according to immunity. A five-group system". Int. J. Lepr. Other Mycobact. Dis. 34 (3): 255–73. PMID 5950347.
- Modlin RL (June 1994). "Th1-Th2 paradigm: insights from leprosy". J. Invest. Dermatol. 102 (6): 828–32. PMID 8006444. doi:10.1111/1523-1747.ep12381958.
- James, William D.; Berger, Timothy G.; and others (2006). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: clinical Dermatology. Saunders Elsevier. ISBN 0-7216-2921-0.
- Jardim MR, Antunes SL, Santos AR, Nascimento OJ, Nery JA, Sales AM, Illarramendi X, Duppre N, Chimelli L, Sampaio EP, Sarno EP; Antunes; Santos et al. (July 2003). "Criteria for diagnosis of pure neural leprosy". J. Neurol. 250 (7): 806–9. PMID 12883921. doi:10.1007/s00415-003-1081-5.
- Mendiratta V, Khan A, Jain A; Khan; Jain (2006). "Primary neuritic leprosy: a reappraisal at a tertiary care hospital". Indian J Lepr 78 (3): 261–7. PMID 17120509.
- Ishida Y, Pecorini L, Guglielmelli E; Pecorini l; Guglielmelli e (July 2000). "Three cases of pure neuritic (PN) leprosy at detection in which skin lesions became visible during their course". Nihon Hansenbyo Gakkai Zasshi 69 (2): 101–6. PMID 10979277. doi:10.5025/hansen.69.101.
- Mishra B, Mukherjee A, Girdhar A, Husain S, Malaviya GN, Girdhar BK; Mukherjee; Girdhar; Husain; Malaviya; Girdhar (1995). "Neuritic leprosy: further progression and significance". Acta Leprol 9 (4): 187–94. PMID 8711979.
- Talwar S, Jha PK, Tiwari VD; Jha; Tiwari (September 1992). "Neuritic leprosy: epidemiology and therapeutic responsiveness". Lepr Rev 63 (3): 263–8. PMID 1406021.
- Rodrigues LC, Lockwood DNj; Lockwood (June 2011). "Leprosy now: epidemiology, progress, challenges, and research gaps". Lancet Infect Dis 11 (6): 464–70. PMID 21616456. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(11)70006-8.
- Duthie MS, Gillis TP, Reed SG; Gillis; Reed (November 2011). "Advances and hurdles on the way toward a leprosy vaccine". Hum Vaccin 7 (11): 1172–83. PMC 3323495. PMID 22048122. doi:10.4161/hv.7.11.16848.
- Setia MS, Steinmaus C, Ho CS, Rutherford GW; Steinmaus; Ho; Rutherford (March 2006). "The role of BCG in prevention of leprosy: a meta-analysis". Lancet Infect Dis 6 (3): 162–70. PMID 16500597. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(06)70412-1.
- Merle CS, Cunha SS, Rodrigues LC; Cunha; Rodrigues (2010). "BCG vaccination and leprosy protection: Review of current evidence and status of BCG in leprosy control". Expert Review of Vaccines 9 (2): 209–222. PMID 20109030. doi:10.1586/ERV.09.161.
- "Mortality and Burden of Disease Estimates for WHO Member States in 2002" (XLS). World Health Organization. 2002.
- WHO (1995). "Leprosy disabilities: magnitude of the problem". Weekly Epidemiological Record 70 (38): 269–75. PMID 7577430.
- Surgery grants for leprosy sufferers in India. Times of India. February 2, 2009.
- "About ILEP". ILEP. Retrieved 2014-08-25.
- World Health Organization. (1985). "Epidemiology of leprosy in relation to control. Report of a WHO Study Group". World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser (Geneva: World Health Organization) 716: 1–60. ISBN 92-4-120716-7. OCLC 12095109. PMID 3925646.
- Marc Monot, Nadine Honoré, Thierry Garnier, Romul Araoz, Jean-Yves Coppée, Céline Lacroix, Samba Sow, John S Spencer, Richard W Truman, Diana L Williams, Robert Gelber, Marcos Virmond, Béatrice Flageul, Sang-Nae Cho, Baohong Ji, Alberto Paniz-Mondolfi, Jacinto Convit, Saroj Young, Paul E Fine, Voahangy Rasolofo, Patrick J Brennan, Stewart T Cole, “On the Origin of Leprosy”, Science 308. 5724 (13 May 2005), DOI: 10.1126/science/1109759
- Francis Adams, The Seven Books of Paulus Aegineta: Translated from the Greek with Commentary Embracing a Complete View of the Knowledge Possessed by the Greeks, Romans and Arabians on all Subjects Connected with Medicine and Surgery, 3 vols. (London: Sydenham Society, 1846)
- Roman: Celsus, Pliny, Serenus Samonicus, Scribonius Largus, Caelius Aurelianus, Themison, Octavius Horatianus, Marcellus the Emperic; Greek: Aretaeus, Plutarch, Galen, Oribasius, Aetius, Actuarius, Nonnus, Psellus, Leo, Myrepsus; Arabic: Scrapion, Avenzoar, Albucasis, the Haly Abbas translated by Stephanus Antiochensis, Alsharavius, Rhases, and Guido de Cauliaco
- Gwen Robbins, V. Mushrif Tripathy, V. N. Misra, R. K. Mohanty, V. S. Shinde, Kelsey M. Gray, and Malcolm D. Schug, “Ancient Skeletal Evidence for Leprosy in India (2000 B.C.)” PLOS, Published: May 27, 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0005669
- "DNA of Jesus-Era Shrouded Man in Jerusalem Reveals Earliest Case of Leprosy". ScienceDaily. 2009-12-16. Retrieved 2010-01-31.
- Irgens LM (2002). "The discovery of the leprosy bacillus". Tidsskr nor Laegeforen 122 (7): 708–9. PMID 11998735.
- al.], edited by Andrew Baum ... [et (1997). Cambridge handbook of psychology, health and medicine. Cambridge, Angleterre: Cambridge University Press. p. 521. ISBN 9780521436861.
- Rees RJ, Pearson JM, Waters MF; Pearson; Waters (1970). "Experimental and Clinical Studies on Rifampicin in Treatment of Leprosy". Br Med J 688 (1): 89–92. PMC 1699176. PMID 4903972. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.5688.89.
- Yawalkar SJ, McDougall AC, Languillon J, Ghosh S, Hajra SK, Opromolla DV, Tonello CJ; McDougall; Languillon; Ghosh; Hajra; Opromolla; Tonello (1982). "Once-monthly rifampicin plus daily dapsone in initial treatment of lepromatous leprosy". Lancet 8283 (1): 1199–1202. PMID 6122970. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(82)92334-0.
- Syphilis through history Encyclopædia Britannica
- "Communicable Diseases Department, Leprosy FAQ". World Health Organization. 2006-05-25. Retrieved 2010-01-31.
- Japan repealed its "Leprosy Prevention Laws" in 1996, but former patients still reside in sanatoriums. "Koizumi apologises for leper colonies". BBC News. May 25, 2001. and Former Hansen's disease patients still struggling with prejudice Japan Times June 7, 2007.
- Arch Dermato Syphilis 1898; 44:159–174
- Rafferty, J (June 2005). "Curing the stigma of leprosy.". Leprosy review 76 (2): 119–26. PMID 16038245.
- Tayman, John (2007). The Colony: The Harrowing True Story of the Exiles of Molokai. New York: Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-0-7432-3301-9.
- Hamilton, Bernard (2000). The leper king and his heirs: Baldwin IV and the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-64187-X.
- Cung giu Nguyên (1955). "Contemporary Vietnamese Writing". Books Abroad (University of Oklahoma) 29 (1): 19–25. JSTOR 40093803. doi:10.2307/40093803.
- Bryant A (1995). Sekigahara 1600: The Final Struggle for Power (Campaign Series, 40). Osprey Publishing (UK). ISBN 1-85532-395-8. Retrieved 2010-02-28.
|40x40px||Wikimedia Commons has media related to Leprosy.|
- Leprosy at DMOZ
- Links and resources Links to information about leprosy selected by the World Health Organization
Lua error in Module:Authority_control at line 346: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).